JMNT(i) 1 Judah, a slave of Jesus Christ and a brother of Jacob (= James), to those having been, and yet being, loved (accepted recipients of the drive for reunion; [other MSS: set-apart and made holy]) within God [the] Father, even (or: and) Jesus Christ; to kept and maintained folks, to called ones (or: for the people being loved in union with and within the midst of Father God, and now being watched over, guarded and protected in and by Jesus Christ – to invited ones) 2 May mercy, peace and love (unambiguous acceptance; reunion's urge) be multiplied to the full to you (or: be increased to fill you; be multiplied to fullness in, for and by you folks). 3 Dearly loved friends, while progressively making all haste and performing every diligent effort to proceed in writing to you concerning our common, communal deliverance (or: the rescue, salvation, health and wholeness belonging equally to several of us, and in which we share and participate as partners; [Aleph & others add: and life]), I possessed a compressed and constraining necessity to write to you, progressively urging and encouraging [you] to be in the habit of strenuously contending (or: to continue adding to the contest; to be repeatedly on top, in combat of the public games; to repeatedly fully participate in the race course) by the faith, in the trust and with the loyalty and confidence having been once for all given over to, for and in the set-apart folks (or: sacred groups). 4 For you see, some people came in unobserved, from the side – those having been previously written of old into this judgment (or: people having from long ago been written into the effects and result of this decision): [to exist being] impious ones, people continuously changing the grace and favor of God into licentiousness, as well as repeatedly denying and disowning our only Sovereign and Lord (or: Supreme Ruler and Owner), Jesus Christ [= Messiah]. 5 But I am purposing and intending to remind you [p78 adds: brothers] – you folks having once seen and thus being aware of all this – that the Lord [= Yahweh; other MSS: Jesus (= Joshua); some read: God] after delivering (rescuing; saving) a people out of Egypt's land, [in] the second [phase] brought to ruin and loss the folks not trusting, believing or being loyal. 6 Besides that, those agents (or: folks having or bringing a message) not guarding (keeping watch over; maintaining) the beginning of themselves (or: the rule of themselves), but to the contrary, after leaving away from (= abandoning) the personal dwelling place (one's own abode or habitation), He has guarded, kept watch over and maintained under gloom (or: thick darkness) by imperceptible (or: in unobservable, but effecting-all) bonds, with a view to a judging (a sifting and a separation for evaluating; a making of a distinction and a deciding) of a great Day (or: pertaining to or whose source is a great day; or: which is [the] great Day). 7 As Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities round about them [= Admah and Zeboyim – cf Deut. 29:23], in like manner (or: turn) to them, being given to fornication and outlandish prostitution, and then going away after different flesh (= unnatural vice; or: = a different expression of alienation that was formed by the existing System), are continuously lying before [us as] – an example (a specimen; an effect of a thing pointed out or presented to sight) continuing in undergoing an experience of justice (the Way pointed out; fairness and equity; what is right) from fire pertaining to the ages (or: of eonian, or age-lasting, fire; of a fire of undetermined duration whose quality and character are the Age [of the Messiah]). 8 In like manner, indeed, these dreaming ones (folks continuing in sleep, or with imaginary experiences) also pollute flesh (= their or others’ bodies; or: = the estranged human nature). They are continuously setting aside lordship (or: ownership systems) and are repeatedly blaspheming (speaking injuriously of and slandering; vilifying; obscuring the light of; misrepresenting) reputations (or: opinions; notions; glories; manifestations which call forth praise). 9 Yet Michael (The One Who is like God), the ruling agent (the first, chief, or original messenger), when making a distinction (a discernment; a thorough separation) to the adversary (or: the slanderer; the one who thrusts things through folks or situations, and thus causes divisions; the “devil”), reasoned (deliberated; spoke thoroughly; discoursed [as in using the Socratic dialectic method]) concerning the body of Moses. He did not assume to bring a blasphemous or villainous judging upon [him] (or: to bring in addition a judging characterized by an abusive distinction or a slanderous decision; or: bring an added evaluating which hindered the light), but rather, He said, "The Lord [=Yahweh] might hold you in added honor (or: set a value upon you; put respect upon you; award you)." [note: this word is from epi, upon, and timao, to hold in respect, to honor, to value, to award. It is also used in negative connotations, and thus can mean, to assess a penalty upon, to chide, to respectfully reprove or admonish. As this passage is contrasting Michael's actions to the negative actions of those who "came in unobserved," I chose the positive translation of epitimao. In his Word Pictures in the New Testament, A.T. Robertson notes that both Clement of Alexandria and Origen said that Judah here quoted the Assumption of Moses. (This latter is an early first century Jewish work of apocalyptic literature. Recall that Paul cites Hellenistic literature in Acts 17:28)] 10 Yet these folks constantly blaspheme (slander; speak injuriously of; villainize; hinder the light of) what indeed they have neither seen nor understand (or: know; perceive), but what they naturally (instinctively; by generation; by sprouting and growing) are continuously acquainted with (or: are versed in; became masters of), in these things they are progressively being corrupted (spoiled, ruined). 11 Alas (or: Tragic is the fate) for them, because they pass along by the way of Cain, and they are (or: were) poured out to the wandering (or: deception) of Balaam's wages, and they lose and destroy themselves in Korah's contradiction (opposing idea; anti-word; message in place of the Logos). 12 These folks are sharply-cleft portions of rocks (or: reefs; = menaces) in your love [relationship] s (or: love-feasts and table fellowships; movements toward acceptance), repeatedly feasting well together, by habit fearlessly shepherding themselves. [They are] clouds without water, being swept along by winds; wasted autumnal trees – unfruitful, twice-died, uprooted; 13 wild waves of the sea, continuously foaming out (or: vomiting forth) their shames (or: disgraces). Wandering and deceived stars, for whom the gloom of darkness (shadowy dimness; obscurity void of Daylight) has been maintained (guarded; kept and watched-over) unto an indefinite time period (or: an age). 14 But Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied to these folks, saying, "Behold, the Lord [=Yahweh] came (or: comes and goes) within His set-apart myriads (or: in union with innumerable holy multitudes, which are Him), 15 to form a separation (or: make a decision; construct a distinction; perform a sifting and a judging) which corresponds to and falls in line with all people (to the level of everyone), and to test (or: search thoroughly) the irreverent folks concerning all their irreverent works (activities; deeds) which they irreverently did, and concerning all the hard things which irreverent outcasts (folks in error; sinners; failures; folks who make mistakes and miss the target) spoke against Him." 16 These are, and continue to be, murmurers (or: those who speak privately and in a low voice, making a grumbling buzz of under-toned mutterings of critical and discontented comments), complainers (or: those who find fault with their lot; discontented ones), continuously passing from one place to another according to their strong desires (or: lusts; full passions), and their mouth continually uttering (or: speaking) over-swollen (hyper-weighty; pompous; boastful) things, continually admiring (or: wondering at) faces (= personal presences; = individuals; = personalities) for the sake and benefit of advantage and furtherance. 17 But you, dearly loved ones, remember the things spoken (the gush-effects; the results of the flow of what was said; the flowing declarations) by the sent-forth folks (representatives; emissaries) in regard to those things having been told beforehand of (or: foretold from and concerning) our Lord, Jesus Christ, 18 that they said to you, "Upon [other MSS: Within (or: During; In union with)] [the] last of the time folks will repeatedly be (or: there will constantly exist) mockers (those acting or playing in the manner of children; sporting, using childish gestures), continuously passing from one place to another according to (or: in correspondence with) their irreverent strong passions (or: their full desires and lusts of things not having the qualities of things approved by God)." 19 These folks are those who are separating by setting boundaries, soulish ones (folks dominated by, or living focused on, those things which characterize the soul [= emotions; will; intellect; "feelings"] or this present, transient life) not having [the] Spirit (or: not habitually holding a [proper] attitude; or: not continually in possession of spirit or Breath-effect). 20 But you, dearly loved ones, while constantly and progressively building yourselves up by your most holy trust and with you people's most sacred, convinced loyalty (or: in y'alls' most set-apart faith), [and] continuously thinking, speaking and acting toward having well-being and things going well (or: praying) within the midst of a set-apart Breath-effect (or: in union with [the] Holy Spirit; centered in a separated and consecrated attitude and life-force), 21 maintain (guard; keep watch over; protect) yourselves in God's love (or: in union with [the] urge toward reunion and unambiguous acceptance, which is God), being folks in the habit of welcomingly receiving, embracing and entertaining the mercy of our Lord, Jesus Christ, on into a life having the qualities and characteristics of the Age (or: a life pertaining to the ages; eonian life; life for the ages; life whose source is the Age [of Messiah]). 22 And so, on the one hand, you folks be repeatedly extending compassionate kindness on some folks in order to relieve their misery and affliction [other MSS read: put to the proof; expose; convict; reprove] while continuously discerning, sifting and thoroughly separating so as to accurately decide [about their situation] (or: be continually showing mercy on some who are constantly undecided and continue wavering and doubting because of making divided judgment in or for themselves); 23 yet on the other hand, be continuously delivering (or: repeatedly rescuing and saving, restoring to health and wholeness) others, snatching them from out of the midst of the Fire; be repeatedly extending compassionate mercy in reverent fear, while hating even the garment having been stained (or: spotted) from the flesh (= the alienated human nature; = the self that was formed and controlled by the System). 24 Now in and by (or: with; to) Him being powerful and able to keep and guard you folks from stumbling (or: tripping) and from harm, and then to stand you flawless and blameless (or: unblemished; without defect or stain) in the presence of His glory (or: down in sight of the manifestation of Him which calls forth praise and yields a good opinion and reputation; or: down in the center of a view of the glory which is Him) in extreme joy (in the center of a much-jumping exultation; in union with body-moving celebration). 25 By the only God (or: To God alone; In God alone), our Deliverer (Rescuer; Safe-keeper; Savior; Restorer) – through Jesus Christ our Lord (Master; Owner) [is] glory (or: a manifestation of that which calls forth praise; a good reputation), greatness, strength, and authority (right and privilege from out of Being) both now and on into all the ages (eons; indefinite periods of time)! Amen (It is so; Count on it). [written circa A.D. 60-62 – Based on the critical analysis of John A.T. Robinson]