Turn - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words


[ 1,,G4762, strepho ]

(1) in the Active Voice,
(a) to turn" (something), Matthew 5:39;
(b) "to bring back," Matthew 27:3 (in the best texts; some have No. 2);
(c) reflexively, "to turn oneself, to turn the back to people," said of God, Acts 7:42;
(d) "to turn one thing into another," Revelation 11:6 (the only place where this word occurs after the Acts);

(2) in the Passive Voice,
(a) used reflexively, "to turn oneself," e.g. Matthew 7:6; John 20:14, John 20:16;
(b) metaphorically, Matthew 18:3, RV, "(except) ye turn" (AV, "... be converted"); John 12:40 (in the best texts; some have No. 4). See CONVERT, A, No. 1.

[ 2,,G654, apostrepho ]
(a) "to cause to turn away (apo), to remove," Romans 11:26; 2 Timothy 4:4 (1st clause); metaphorically, "to turn away from allegiance, pervert," Luke 23:14;
(b) "to make to return, put back," Matthew 26:52;
(c) in the Passive Voice, used reflexively, "to turn onself away from," Matthew 5:42; 2 Timothy 1:15; Titus 1:14; Hebrews 12:25; in the Active Voice, Acts 3:26. See PERVERT, PUT.

[ 3,,G1294, diastrepho ]
"to distort" (dia, "asunder"), is rendered "to turn aside," RV (AV, "... away"), in Acts 13:8. See PERVERT, No. 2.

[ 4,,G1994, epistrepho ]
is used
(a) transitively, "to make to turn towards" (epi) Luke 1:16-Luke 1:17; James 5:19-James 5:20 (to convert);
(b) intransitively, "to turn oneself round," e.g., in the Passive Voice, Mark 5:30 (See RETURN); in the Active Voice, Matthew 13:15, RV, "turn again" (AV, "be converted"); Acts 11:21; Acts 14:15; Acts 15:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:9, "ye turned," the aorist tense indicating an immediate and decisive change, consequent upon a deliberate choice; conversion is a voluntary act in response to the presentation of truth. See CONVERT.

[ 5,,G3344, metastrepho ]
signifies, in the Passive Voice, "to be turned" (of a change into something different, meta) in Acts 2:20; James 4:9, See PERVERT, No. 3.

[ 6,,G5290, hupostrepho ]
is used intransitively of "turning back, behind" (hupo), e.g., Luke 17:15, "turned back;" in Luke 2:45, RV, "returned:" See RETURN.

[ 7,,G576, apobaino ]
"to go from," is used metaphorically of events, "to issue, turn out," Luke 21:13; Philippians 1:19. See GO, No. 21.

[ 8,,G3329, metago ]
"to move from one side to another," is rendered "to turn about" in James 3:3-James 3:4.

[ 9,,G3346, metatithemi ]
"to change," is translated "turning (the grace of God)" in Jude 1:4. See CARRY, CHANGE, REMOVE, TRANSLATE.

[ 10,,G344, anakampto ]
ana, "back," kampto, "to bend," is rendered "shall turn ... again," in Luke 10:6. See RETURN.

[ 11,,G1624, ektrepo ]
"to cause to turn aside" (ek, "from," trepo, "to turn"), is used in the Passive Voice, with Middle sense, in 1 Timothy 1:6; 1 Timothy 5:15; 1 Timothy 6:20, RV, "turning away" (AV, "avoiding"); 2 Timothy 4:4 (2nd clause); Hebrews 12:13, "be (not) turned out of the way" (RV, marg., "put out of joint"); some adhere to the meaning "to turn aside, go astray;" the interpretation depends on the antithesis which follows, "but rather be healed" (RV), which is not the antithesis to "turning aside" or being "turned" out of the way; accordingly the marg. is to be preferred (the verb is often used medically). In the Sept., Amos 5:8.

[ 12,,G665, apotrepo ]
"to cause to turn away" (apo), is used in the Middle Voice in 2 Timothy 3:5.

[ 13,,G4062, peritrepo ]
"to turn about" (peri), is rendered "doth turn (thee to madness)" in Acts 26:24, RV, AV, "doth make (thee mad)."

[ 14,,G3179, methistemi ]
is used metaphorically in Acts 19:26, "turned away (much people)." See PUT, REMOVE, TRANSLATE.

[ 15,,G387, anastatoo ]
"to stir up, excite, unsettle" (ana, "up," histemi, "to cause to stand"), is rendered "have turned (the world) upside down" in Acts 17:6. See TROUBLE, UPROAR.

[ 16,,G1096, ginomai ]
"to become," is rendered "shall be turned" in John 16:20 (of sorrow into joy).

[ 17,,G1578, ekklino ]
"to turn aside" (ek, "from," klino, "to lean"), is rendered "have ... turned aside" in Romans 3:12 (AV, "are ... gone out of the way"); Romans 16:17, RV, "turn away" (AV, "avoid"); 1 Peter 3:11; RV, ditto (AV, "eschew").

[ 18,,G1237, diadechomai ]
"to receive through another, to receive in turn" (dia, "through," dechomai, "to receive"), occurs in Acts 7:45, RV, "in their turn ... when they entered" (AV, "that came after"); the meaning here is "having received (it) after," i.e., as from Moses under Joshua's leadership. In the papyri the word is used similarily of visiting as deputy (See also Field, Notes on the Trans. of the NT, 116).


(1) In Matthew 2:22, AV, anachoero, "to retire, withdraw," is rendered "turned aside" (RV, "withdrew").

(2) For "turned to flight," klino, Hebrews 11:34, See FLIGHT, B.

(3) For the phrase "by turn" in 1 Corinthians 14:27 See COURSE, B, Note

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words