Fall, Fallen, Falling, Fell - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Fall, Fallen, Falling, Fell

[ A-1,Noun,G4431, ptosis ]
a fall" (akin to B, No. 1), is used
(a) literally, of the "overthrow of a building," Matthew 7:27;
(b) metaphorically, Luke 2:34, of the spiritual "fall" of those in Israel who would reject Christ; the word "again" in the AV of the next clause is misleading; the "rising up" (RV) refers to those who would acknowledge and receive Him, a distinct class from those to whom the "fall" applies. The "fall" would be irretrievable, cp.
(a); such a lapse as Peter's is not in view.

[ A-2,Noun,G3900, paraptoma ]
primarily "a false step, a blunder" (para, "aside," pipto, "to fall"), then "a lapse from uprightness, a sin, a moral trespass, misdeed," is translated "fall" in Romans 11:11-Romans 11:12, of the sin and "downfall" of Israel in their refusal to acknowledge God's claims and His Christ; by reason of this the offer of salvation was made to Gentiles; cp. ptaio, "to stumble," in Romans 11:11. See FAULT, OFFENSE, SIN, TRESPASS.

[ A-3,Noun,G646, apostasia ]
"a defection, revolt, apostasy," is used in the NT of religious apostasy; in Acts 21:21, it is translated "to forsake," lit., "thou teachest apostasy from Moses." In 2 Thessalonians 2:3 "the falling away" signifies apostasy from the faith. In papyri documents it is used politically of rebels. Note: For "mighty fall," Revelation 18:21, RV, See VIOLENCE.

[ B-1,Verb,G4098, pipto ]
"to fall," is used
(a) of descent, to "fall" down from, e.g., Matthew 10:29; Matthew 13:4;
(b) of a lot, Acts 1:26;
(c) of "falling" under judgment, James 5:12 (cp. Revelation 18:2, RV);
(d) of persons in the act of prostration, to prostrate oneself, e.g., Matthew 17:6; John 18:6; Revelation 1:17; in homage and workship, e.g., Matthew 2:11; Mark 5:22; Revelation 5:14; Revelation 19:4;
(e) of things, "falling" into ruin, or failing, e.g., Matthew 7:25; Luke 16:17, RV, "fall," for AV, "fail;" Hebrews 11:30;
(f) of "falling" in judgement upon persons, as of the sun's heat, Revelation 7:16, RV, "strike," AV, "light;" of a mist and darkness, Acts 13:11 (some mss. have epipipto);
(g) of persons, in "falling" morally or spiritually, Romans 14:4; 1 Corinthians 10:8, 1 Corinthians 10:12; Revelation 2:5 (some mss. have No. 3 here). See FAIL, LIGHT (upon), STRIKE.

[ B-2,Verb,G634, apopipto ]
"to fall from" (apo, "from"), is used in Acts 9:18, of the scales which "fell" from the eyes of Saul of Tarsus.

[ B-3,Verb,G1601, ekpipto ]
"to fall out of" (ek, "out," and No. 1), "is used in the NT, literally, of flowers that wither in the course of nature, James 1:11; 1 Peter 1:24; of a ship not under control, Acts 27:17, Acts 27:26, Acts 27:29, Acts 27:32; of shackles loosed from a prisoner's wrist, Acts 12:7; figuratively, of the Word of God (the expression of His purpose), which cannot "fall" away from the end to which it is set, Romans 9:6; of the believer who is warned lest he "fall" away from the course in which he has been confirmed by the Word of God, 2 Peter 3:17." * [* From Notes on Galatians, by Hogg and Vine, p. 242.] So of those who seek to be justified by law, Galatians 5:4, "ye are fallen away from grace." Some mss. have this verb in Mark 13:25, for No. 1; so in Revelation 2:5. See CAST, EFFECT.

[ B-4,Verb,G1706, empipto ]
"to fall into, or among" (en, "in," and No. 1), is used
(a) literally, Matthew 12:11; Luke 6:39 (some mss. have No. 1 here); Luke 10:36; some mss. have it in Luke 14:5;
(b) metaphorically, into condemnation, 1 Timothy 3:6; reproach, 1 Timothy 3:7; temptation and snare, 1 Timothy 6:9; the hands of God in judgment, Hebrews 10:31.

[ B-5,Verb,G1968, epipipto ]
"to fall upon" (epi, "upon," and No. 1), is used
(a) literally, Mark 3:10, "pressed upon;" Acts 20:10, Acts 20:37;
(b) metaphorically, of fear, Luke 1:12; Acts 19:17; Revelation 11:11 (No. 1, in some mss.); reproaches, Romans 15:3; of the Holy Spirit, Acts 8:16; Acts 10:44; Acts 11:15.

Note: Some mss. have this verb in John 13:25; Acts 10:10; Acts 13:11. See PRESS.

[ B-6,Verb,G2667, katapipto ]
"to fall down" (kata, "down," and No. 1), is used in Luke 8:6 (in the best mss.); Acts 26:14; Acts 28:6.

[ B-7,Verb,G3895, parapipto ]
akin to A, No. 2, properly, "to fall in one's way" (para, "by"), signifies "to fall away" (from adherence to the realities and facts of the faith), Hebrews 6:6.

[ B-8,Verb,G4045, peripipto ]
"to fall around" (peri, "around"), hence signifies to "fall" in with, or among, to light upon, come across, Luke 10:30, "among (robbers);" Acts 27:41, AV, "falling into," RV, "lighting upon," a part of a shore; James 1:2, into temptation (i.e., trials). See LIGHT (to light upon). In the Sept., Ruth 2:3; 2 Samuel 1:6; Proverbs 11:5.

[ B-9,Verb,G4363, prospipto ]
"to fall towards anything" (pros, "towards"), "to strike against," is said of "wind," Matthew 7:25; it also signifies to "fall" down at one's feet, "fall" prostrate before, Mark 3:11; Mark 5:33; Mark 7:25; Luke 5:8; Luke 8:28, Luke 8:47; Acts 16:29.

[ B-10,Verb,G5302, hustereo ]
"to come late, to be last, behind, inferior," is translated "falleth short" in Hebrews 12:15, RV, for AV, "fail," and "fall short" in Romans 3:23, for AV, "come short," which, in view of the preceding "have," is ambiguous, and might be taken as a past tense. See BEHIND.

[ B-11,Verb,G1911, epiballo ]
"to cast upon" (epi, "on," ballo, "to throw"), also signifies to "fall" to one's share, Luke 15:12, "that falleth." The phrase is frequently found in the papyri documents as a technical formula. See CAST, A, No. 7.

[ B-12,Verb,G2064, erchomai ]
"to come," is translated "have fallen out," in Philippians 1:12, of the issue of circumstances. See COME.

[ B-13,Verb,G1096, ginomai ]
"to become," is translated "falling" (headlong) in Acts 1:18. See Note
(1) below. See BECOME.

[ B-14,Verb,G868, aphistemi ]
when used intransitively, signifies "to stand off" (apo, "from," histemi, "to stand"), "to withdraw from;" hence, "to fall away, to apostatize," 1 Timothy 4:1, RV, "shall fall away," for AV, "shall depart;" Hebrews 3:12, RV, "falling away." See DEPART, No. 20.

[ B-15,Verb,G3845, parabaino ]
"to transgress, fall" (para, "away, across," baino, "to go"), is translated "fell away" in Acts 1:25, RV, for AV, "by transgression fell." See TRANSGRESS.

[ B-16,Verb,G2597, katabaino ]
denotes "to come (or fall) down," Luke 22:44; in Revelation 16:21, "cometh down," RV. See COME, DESCEND.


(1) In Revelation 16:2, ginomai, "to become," is translated "it became," RV, for AV, "there fell."

(2) In 2 Peter 1:10, ptaio, "to stumble," is translated "stumble," RV, for AV, "fall."

(3) In Romans 14:13, skandalon, "a snare, a means of doing wrong," is rendered "an occasion of falling," RV, for AV "an occasion to fall."

(4) Koimao, in the Middle Voice, signifies "to fall asleep," Matthew 27:52, RV, "had fallen asleep," for AV, "slept." See ASLEEP.

(5) In Acts 27:34, apollumi, "to perish," is translated "shall ... perish," RV, for AV, "shall ... fall."

(6) In Jude 1:24 the adjective aptaistos, "without stumbling, sure footed" (a, negative, and ptaio, "to stumble"), is translated "from stumbling," RV, for AV, "from falling."

(7) In Acts 1:18 the phrase prenes, headlong, with the aorist participle of ginomai, "to become," "falling headlong." lit., "having become headlong," is used of the suicide of Judas Iscariot. Some would render the word (it is a medical term) "swollen," (as connected with a form of the verb pimpremi, "to burn"), indicating the condition of the body of certain suicides.

(8) In Acts 20:9, AV, kataphero, "to bear down," is translated "being fallen into" (RV, "borne down"), and then "he sunk down" (RV, ditto), the first of gradual oppression, the second (the aorist tense) of momentary effect.

(9) In Acts 19:35 diopetes, from dios, "heaven," pipto, "to fall," i.e., "fallen" from the sky, is rendered "image which fell down from Jupiter" (RV marg., "heaven").

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words