Abundance, Abundant, Abundantly, Abound - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Abundance, Abundant, Abundantly, Abound

[ A-1,Noun,G100, hadrotes ]
which, in 2 Corinthians 8:20, in reference to the gifts from the church at Corinth for poor saints in Judea, the RV renders bounty" (AV, "abundance"), is derived from hadros, "thick, fat, full-grown, rich" (in the Sept. it is used chiefly of rich and great men, e.g., Jeremiah 5:5). In regard, therefore, to the offering in 2 Corinthians 8:20 the thought is that of bountiful giving, a fat offering, not mere "abundance".

[ A-2,Noun,G4050, perisseia ]
"an exceeding measure, something above the ordinary," is used four times; Romans 5:17, "of abundance of grace;" 2 Corinthians 8:2, "of abundance of joy;" 2 Corinthians 10:15, of the extension of the Apostle's sphere of service through the practical fellowship of the saints at Corinth; in James 1:21 it is rendered, metaphorically, "overflowing," AV "superfluity," with reference to wickedness. Some would render it "residuum," or "what remains." See No. 3.

[ A-3,Noun,G4051, perisseuma ]
denotes "abundance" in a slightly more concrete form, 2 Corinthians 8:13-14, where it stands for the gifts in kind supplied by the saints. In Matthew 12:34; Luke 6:45 it is used of the abundance of the heart; in Mark 8:8, of the broken pieces left after feeding the multitude "that remained over" (AV "that was left"). See REMAIN. In the Sept., Ecclesiastes 2:15.

[ A-4,Noun,G5236, huperbole ]
lit., "a throwing beyond" (huper, "over," ballo, "to throw"), donotes "excellence, exceeding greatness," of the power of God in His servants, 2 Corinthians 4:7; of the revelations given to Paul, 2 Corinthians 12:7; with the preposition kata, the phrase signifies "exceeding," Romans 7:13; "still more excellent," 1 Corinthians 12:31; "exceedingly," 2 Corinthians 1:8; "beyond measure," Galatians 1:13; and, in a more extended phrase, "more and more exceedingly," 2 Corinthians 4:17. See EXCELLENCY, EXCELLENT, MEASURE.

[ B-1,Verb,G4052, perisseuo ]
akin to A, Nos. 2 and 3, is used intransitively
(a) "of exceeding a certain number, or measure, to be over, to remain," of the fragments after feeding the multitude (cp. perisseuma), Luke 9:17; John 6:12-John 6:13; "to exist in abundance;" as of wealth, Luke 12:15; Luke 21:4; of food, Luke 15:17. In this sense it is used also of consolation, 2 Corinthians 1:5; of the effect of a gift sent to meet the need of saints, 2 Corinthians 9:12; of rejoicing, Philippians 1:26; of what comes or falls to the lot of a person in large measure, as of the grace of God and the gift by the grace of Christ, Romans 5:15; of the sufferings of Christ, 2 Corinthians 1:5. In Mark 12:44; Luke 21:4, the RV has "superfluity."

(b) "to redound to, or to turn out abundantly for something," as of the liberal effects of poverty, 2 Corinthians 8:2; in Romans 3:7, argumentatively, of the effects of the truth of God, as to whether God's truthfulness becomes more conspicuous and His glory is increased through man's untruthfulness; of numerical increase, Acts 16:5.

(c) "to be abundantly furnished, to abound in a thing," as of material benefits, Luke 12:15; Philippians 4:18 of spirtual gifts; 1 Corinthians 14:12, or "to be pre-eminent, to excel, to be morally better off," as regards partaking of certain meats; 1 Corinthians 8:8, "are we the better;" "to abound" in hope, Romans 15:13; the work of the Lord, 1 Corinthians 15:58; faith and grace, 2 Corinthians 8:7; thanksgiving, Colossians 2:7; walking so as to please God, Philippians 1:9; 1 Thessalonians 4:1, 1 Thessalonians 4:10; of righteousness, Matthew 5:20; of the Gospel, as the ministration of righteousness, 2 Corinthians 3:9, "exceed."

It is used transitively, in the sense of "to make to abound," e.g., to provide a person richly so that he has "abundance," as of spiritual truth, Matthew 13:12; the right use of what God has entrusted to us, Matthew 25:29; the power of God in conferring grace, 2 Corinthians 9:8; Ephesians 1:8; to "make abundant" or to cause to excel, as of the effect of grace in regard to thanksgiving, 2 Corinthians 4:15; His power to make us "to abound" in love, 1 Thessalonians 3:12. See BETTER, ENOUGH, EXCEED, EXCEL, INCREASE, REDOUND, REMAIN.

[ B-2,Verb,G5248, huperperisseuo ]
a strengthened form of No. 1, signifies "to abound exceedingly," Romans 5:20, of the operation of grace; 2 Corinthians 7:4, in the Middle Voice, of the Apostle's joy in the saints. See JOYFUL.

[ B-3,Verb,G4121, pleonazo ]
from pleion, or pleon, "more" (greater in quantity), akin to pleo, "to fill," signifies,
(a) intransitively, "to superabound," of a trespass or sin, Romans 5:20; of grace, Romans 6:1; 2 Corinthians 4:15; of spiritual fruit, Philippians 4:17; of love, 2 Thessalonians 1:3; of various fruits, 2 Peter 1:8; of the gathering of the manna, 2 Corinthians 8:15, "had ... over;"
(b) transitively, "to make to increase," 1 Thessalonians 3:12. See INCREASE, OVER.

[ B-4,Verb,G5250, huperpleonazo ]
a strengthened form of No. 3, signifying "to abound exceedingly," is used in 1 Timothy 1:14, of the grace of God.

[ B-5,Verb,G4129, plethuno ]
a lengthened form of pletho, "to fill," akin to No. 3, and to plethos, "a multitude," signifies "to increase, to multiply," and, in the Passive Voice, "to be multiplied," e.g., of iniquity, Matthew 24:12, RV. See MULTIPLY.

Note: Huperballo, akin to A, No. 4, "to exceed, excel," is translated "passeth" in Ephesians 3:19. See also 2 Corinthians 3:10 (RV, "surpasseth;" AV, "excelleth"); 2 Corinthians 9:14, "exceeding;" Ephesians 1:19; Ephesians 2:7. See EXCEED, EXCEL.

[ C-1,Adjective,G4053, perissos ]
akin to B, No. 1, "abundant," is translated "advantage" in Romans 3:1, "superfluous" in 2 Corinthians 9:1. See ADVANTAGE, MORE, B, No. 2, SUPERFLUOUS.

[ C-2,Adjective,G4055, perissoteros ]
the comparative degree of No. 1, is translated as follows: in Matthew 11:9, and Luke 7:26, RV, "much more" (AV, "more"); in Mark 12:40, "greater;" in Luke 12:4, Luke 12:48, "more;" in 1 Corinthians 12:23-24, "more abundant;" in 2 Corinthians 2:7, "overmuch;" in 2 Corinthians 10:8, RV, "abundantly;" AV, "more." See GREATER, MORE, OVERMUCH.

[ D-1,Adverb,G4057, perissos ]
corresponding to Adjective No. 1 above, is found in Matthew 27:23, RV, "exceedingly," AV, "the more;" Mark 10:26, RV, "exceedingly," AV, "out of measure;" Mark 15:14; Acts 26:11, "exceedingly." See EXCEEDINGLY, B, No. 4, MEASURE, B, No. 2, MORE.

[ D-2,Adverb,G4056, perissoteros ]
the adverbial form of No. 2, above, means "more abundantly;" in Hebrews 2:1, lit., "we ought to give heed more abundantly." It is most frequent in 2 Cor. In 2 Corinthians 11:23, See the RV. See EARNEST, EXCEEDINGLY, RATHER.

[ D-3,Adverb,G5249, huperperissos ]
a strengthened form of No. 1, signifies "exceeding abundantly," Mark 7:37.

[ D-4,Adverb,5228 G1537, huperekperissou ]
a still further strengthened form, is translated "exceeding abundantly" in Ephesians 3:20; "exceedingly" in 1 Thessalonians 3:10; 1 Thessalonians 5:13. See EXCEEDINGLY.

Note: Huperballontos, akin to A, No. 4, denotes "above measure," 2 Corinthians 11:23.

[ D-5,Adverb,G4146, plousios ]
connected with ploutos, "riches," is rendered "abundantly," Titus 3:6; 2 Peter 1:11; "richly," Colossians 3:16; 1 Timothy 6:17. It is used of
(a) the gift of the Holy Spirit;
(b) entrance into the coming kingdom;
(c) the indwelling of the Word of Christ;
(d) material benefits. See RICHLY.


(1) Dunamis, "power," is translated "abundance" in the AV of Revelation 18:3 (RV and AV marg., "power").

(2) Polus, "much, many," is rendered "abundant" in 1 Peter 1:3, AV (marg., "much"), RV, "great."

(3) For the verbs plouteo and ploutizo, See RICH and ENRICH.

(4) For ploutos, "wealth, riches," and plousios, "rich," See RICH.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words