BDB853 [H853]

I. אֵת, with makk. אֶתֿ, with suffix אֹתִי; ˜אֹתְךָ, ˜אֹתְכָה Num 22:33, אֹתָ֑ךְ, אֹתָ֑כָה Exod 29:35, feminine אֹתָךְ; אֹתוֺ etc.; 2 plural אֶתְכֶם, once ˜אוֺתְכֶם Josh 23:15 3 masculine plural regularly אֹתָם, rarely אֶתְהֶם Gen 32:1; Exod 18:20; Num 21:3; Ezek 34:12; 1Chr 6:50, once ˜אוֺתְהֶם Ezek 23:45 3 feminine plural, on the contrary, regularly אֶתְהֶן (13 t.), once אֹתָן Ezek 16:54 (also ˜אוֺתְהֶן Ezek 23:47, אֹתָ֖נָה Exod 35:26, אוֺתָ֖נָה Ezek 34:21); forms with cholem also often written plene: — the mark of the accusative, prefixed as a rule only to nouns that are definite (Moabite id., Phoenician אית i.e. אִיַּת (Schrödp. 213 f.); Aramaic יָת frequently in ᵑ7; Syriac very rare as mark of accusative (for which is preferred), but used often in the sense of substance οὐσία, also in that of self, e.g. per se, reapse, sibi ipsi, PS1640 f., Samaritan ; Arabic , only used with suffix, when it is desired to emphasize the pronoun, e.g. Qor 1:4 WAG i. § 189. [Ethiopic uses k£y¹ similarly, Di§ 150 a; but it is dubious if this is etymologically akin.] The primitive form will have been 'iwyath, originally a substantive with following genitive, Olp. 432; whether ultimately a parallel development with אוֺת sign from √ אוה is uncertain: Ol WAG i. § 188 LagM i. 226 affirm, ZMG 1886, 738 doubts. In Hebrew the ground-form is אוֺת; the forms with ¢, e being abbreviated. In post Biblical Hebrew, used in combination with another preposition: thus בְּאוֺתוֺ הַיּוֺם = Bibl. בַּיּוֺם הַהוּא, בְּאוֺתָהּ הַשָּׁעָה; or as a nomin., e.g. אוֺתוֺ הָאִישׁ = Bibl. הָאִישׁ הַהוּא).

1. As mark of the accusative prefixed to substantives defined either by the article (or כֹּל), or by a genitive or pronominal affix, or in virtue of being proper names:
\ \ a. with transitive verbs, Gen 1:1; Gen 1:16; Gen 1:29; Gen 1:30; Gen 2:11; Gen 4:1; Gen 4:2; Gen 9:3 (אֶתֿ˜כֹּל׃) etc. Similarly אֶתמִֿי whom (in particular), Josh 24:15; 1Sam 12:3; 1Sam 28:11; Isa 6:8 and elsewhere (but never אֶתמָֿה); also with זֶה Gen 29:33; Gen 44:29; 1Sam 21:16; 1Kgs 22:27 +, זֹאת Gen 29:27; 2Sam 13:27 +, אֵלֶּה Gen 46:18; Lev 11:18; Isa 49:21 +. So pretty uniformly in prose; but in poetry את is commonly dispensed with. By the use of את with the pronominal affix, a pronoun can at once, if required, be placed in a position of emphasis; let the order of words from this point of view be carefully noticed in the following passages: Gen 7:1; Gen 24:14; Gen 37:4; Lev 10:17; Lev 11:33; Num 22:32 thee I had slain, and her I had kept alive, Deut 4:14; Deut 6:13; Deut 6:23; Deut 13:5; Judg 14:3 אוֺתָהּ קַח לִי take for me her, 1Sam 14:35; 1Sam 15:1; 1Sam 18:17; 1Sam 21:10 אִםאֹֿתָהּ תִּקַּחלְֿךָ קָ֔ח if thou wilt take that, take it, 1Kgs 1:35; 1Kgs 14:9; Isa 43:22; Isa 57:11; Jer 9:2. So הַאוֺתִי Jer 5:22; Jer 7:19. It also sometimes enables the reflexive sense to be expressed (elsewhere נַפְשָׁם) Jer 7:19; Ezek 34:2. Rarely with a substantive which is undefined (Ew§ 277 d 2 Ges«GKC:117»§ 117, 1, R. 2), as Exod 21:28; Num 21:9; Lev 20:14; 1Sam 24:6 (but see Dr) 2Sam 4:11; 2Sam 18:18; 2Sam 23:21 or which, though definite, is without the article, Gen 21:30; 2Sam 15:16; Lev 26:5; 1Sam 9:3 (so Num 16:15) Isa 33:19; Isa 41:7; Ezek 43:10 (for further examples see Ew 1.c.)
\ \ b. with a passive verb (Ges«GKC:121»§ 121. 1 Ew§ 295 b) conceived as expressing neutrally the action in question, and construed accordingly with an accusative of that which is its real object: examples occur with tolerable frequency from Gen 4:18 (J) וַיִּוָּלֵד לַחֲנוֺךְ אֶתעֿירָד, Gen 17:5 (P), לֹא יִקָּרֵא עוֺד אֶתשִֿׁמְךָ אַ˜ברָם there shall not be called (=one shall not call) thy name Abram, Gen 21:5 (E), Gen 27:42; 2Sam 21:11; 1Kgs 18:13; Hos 10:6 etc., to Jer 35:18; Jer 38:4; Jer 50:20; Ezek 16:4; Ezek 16:5; Esth 2:13 (compare DrJPh xi. 227 f.): also with passive verbs of filling (Ew§ 281 b), as Exod 1:7 +.
\ \ c. with neuter verbs or expressions, especially such as involve the idea of regarding, or treating, appy. by a construction κατὰ σύνεσιν (rare), Josh 22:17; 2Sam 11:25; Neh 9:32 (compare 1Sam 20:13 Dr). Once after אֵין, Hag 2:17 אֵין אֶתְכֶם אֵלַיָֽ.
\ \ d. poet. (si vera lectio), after an abstract noun used with a verbal force, Hab 3:13 (Amos 4:11; Isa 13:19; Jer 50:40 מַהְפֵּכָה exerts a verbal force, like the Arabic nom. verbi [see WAG i. § 196, 43]; and Num 10:2; Ezek 17:9 לְמַסַּע, לְמַשְׂאוֺת are Aramaizing infinitives: compare Ew§ 239 a).

2. את marks an accusative in other relations than that of direct object to a verb:
\ \ a. with verbs of motion (very rare) Num 13:17; Deut 1:19; Deut 2:7 (to 'walk the wilderness'); denoting the goal Judg 19:18; Ezek 21:25 (Ew§ 281 d, n., 282 a 1).
\ \ b. denoting time (duration), also very rare: Exod 13:7; Lev 25:22; Deut 9:25.
\ \ c. expressing the accus. of limitation (rare): Gen 17:11; Gen 17:14; 1Kgs 15:23.

3. Chiefly in an inferior or later style, אֵת (or וְאֵת) is used irregularly, partly (α), as it would seem, to give greater definiteness (so especially וְאֵת) at the mention of a new subject (when it may sometimes be rendered as regards), or through the influence of a neighbouring verb (a construct κατὰ σύνεσιν), or by an anacoluthon, partly (β) as resuming loosely some other preposition Thus (α) Exod 1:14; Num 3:26; Num 3:46; Num 5:10 (with הָיָה: so Ezek 35:10) Num 18:21b Deut 11:2 (anacoluthon), Deut 14:13; Josh 17:11; Judg 20:44; Judg 20:46 (contr. vJudg 20:25 vJudg 20:35) 1Sam 17:34 (see Dr) 1Sam 26:16; 2Sam 21:22; 2Kgs 6:5; Isa 53:8 (probably), Isa 57:12; Jer 23:33 (but read rather with ᵐ5 ᵑ9 אַתֶּם הַמַּשָּׂא) Jer 27:8; Jer 36:22; Jer 38:16 Kt, Jer 45:4 b Ezek 16:22; Ezek 17:21; Ezek 20:16; Ezek 29:4 b Ezek 43:7 (ᵐ5 Co prefix הֲרָאִיתָ) Ezek 44:3; Zech 8:17; Eccl 4:3; Dan 9:13; Neh 9:19; Neh 9:34; 1Chr 2:9; 2Chr 31:17. In 1Sam 30:23; Hag 2:5 probably some such word as remember is to be understood. (β) Jer 38:9; Ezek 14:22 b Ezek 37:19 b Zech 12:10 סָבִיב אֵת 1Kgs 6:5; Ezek 43:17 strangely (in 1 Kings ᵐ5 omits the clause: so StaZAW 1883, 135). — In 1Kgs 11:1 וְ is merely and also, and especially (see וְ); v1Kgs 11:25 is corrupt (read with ᵐ5 זֹאת הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה הֲדָד); Ezek 47:17; Ezek 47:18; Ezek 47:19 read similarly for ואת, זֹאת: see vEzek 47:20. — For some particulars as to the use of את, see A. M. WilsonHebraica. vi. 139 ff. 212 ff. (who, however, confuses it sometimes with II. אֵת). For denoting the pronominal object of a verb, את with suffix preponderates relatively much above the verbal affix in P, as compared with J E Deuteronomy Judges Samuel Kings (see GieZAW 1881, 258 f.), — partly, probably, on account of the greater distinctness and precision which P loves.

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