BDB854 [H854]

II. אֵת, preposition with — with makkeph אֶתֿ, with suffix אִתִּי, אִתְּךָ, אִתְּכֶם etc. (also, however, ˜אוֺתְךָ, אוֺתוֺ, and similarly מֵ˜אוֺתְךָ, מֵאוֺתוֺ etc.), first in Josh 10:25; Josh 14:12, next 2Sam 24:24 then repeatedly (but not exclusively) 1 Ki 20 — 2 Ki 8, & in Jeremiah, Ezekiel, e.g. 1Kgs 20:25 (but v1Kgs 20:23 אִתָּם) 1Kgs 22:7; 1Kgs 22:8; 1Kgs 22:24 (beside מֵאִתִּי) 2Kgs 1:15; 2Kgs 3:11; 2Kgs 3:12; 2Kgs 3:26; 2Kgs 6:16 (beside מֵאִתּוֺ) 2Kgs 8:8; Jer 2:35; Jer 10:5; Jer 16:8; Jer 19:10; Jer 20:11; Ezek 2:6; Ezek 10:17; Ezek 23:23; Ezek 37:26 (see below 1 d; also Isa 59:21, contr. Gen 17:4: on שָׁכַב אֹתָהּ Gen 34:2 and elsewhere, see below שָׁכַב, & compare DrSm ii. 13, 14) preposition denoting proximity (synonym עִם; Phoenician את, e.g. CISi. 3, 8 לא יכן לם משכב את רפאם let there not be for them a resting-place with the shades; Assyrian itti (perhaps akin to ittu 'side,' DlPr 115 Hpt KAT2. 498; but compare ZMG '86, 738 f.). Not found as yet in the other cognate languages: but compare Ethiopic 'enta, towards, which supports the view; that אֵת is for 'int [compare תֵּת, תִּתִּי], perhaps from √ אנה to meet Olp. 431 PrätZMG '73, 643 LagM i. 226).

1. Of companionship, together with: Gen 6:13 behold, I destroy them אֶתהָֿאָרֶץ together with the earth, Gen 11:31; Gen 12:4 + often, especially with verbs of dwelling, abiding, going, etc., as Judg 1:3; Judg 14:11; Judg 19:4, & in the phrase הָעָם אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֺ Judg 4:13; Judg 7:1; Judg 9:33; Judg 9:48; 1Sam 14:20; 1Sam 30:4 etc.; thou, and thy sons אִתָּֽךְ ׃ ֗֗֗ with thee Gen 6:18 similarly (3rd person) Gen 7:7; Gen 7:13; Gen 8:18; Gen 9:8 and elsewhere (character of P: DrIntr 124); הִתְהַלֵּךְ אֶתהָֿאֱלֹהִים to walk with God, i.e. to have him as a companion (that is, by adopting a course of life pleasing to him) Gen 5:22; Gen 5:24; Gen 6:9 (compare הִתְהַלֵּךְ אֵת literal 1Sam 25:15); — by the side of, like Isa 45:9, equally with Lev 26:39, in common with Jer 23:28b (compare עִם 1 e, f). Hence, in particular —
\ \ a. with for the purpose of help: Num 14:9 אִתָּנוּ ׳וי, Josh 14:12 (אוֺתִי, as Jer 20:11) Judg 1:19; 2Kgs 6:16; 2Kgs 9:32 מִי אִתִּי מִי who is on my side, who ? כִּי אִתְּךָ אֲנִי Isa 43:5; Jer 1:18; Jer 1:19 +; Isa 63:3; Ps 12:5 our lips are with us, on our side; in the phrase אֵת ׳(הָֽיְתָה) יַד פּ 2Sam 14:19; 2Kgs 15:19; Jer 26:24 נָשָׂא אֵת to bear together with, i.e. to assist Exod 18:22; Num 11:17. Exceptionally, = with the help of: Gen 4:1 for I have gotten a man ׳אֶתיֿ with the help of ׳י (compare עם 1Sam 14:45) Gen 49:25 (where, however, the parallelism, & ᵑ7 ᵑ6 favour וְאֵל שַׁדַּי for וְאֵת שַׁדַּי) Mic 3:8 compare Esth 9:29.
\ \ b. beside (German neben): Gen 39:6 לֹא יָדַע אִתּוֺ מְאוּמָה he knew not with him, beside him, aught (i.e. Joseph managed everything), vGen 39:8; Exod 20:23 לֹא תַעֲשׂוּן אִתִּ֑י ye shall not make (aught) beside me.
\ \ c. beside = in the presence of (rare): Gen 20:16b and before all thou shalt be righted, Isa 30:8; Mic 6:1. In this sense ׳אֶתפְּֿנֵי פּ is more frequently, see below פָּנִים
\ \ d. of intercourse of different kinds with another, e.g. after verbs of making a covenant or contract, or (less often) of speaking or dealing: (α) Gen 9:9; Gen 15:18; Gen 17:4 (Ezek 16:60; Isa 59:21 -אוֺת) Josh 10:4; 1Kgs 3:1 etc.; compare 1Sam 2:13 (but here הַכֹּהֵן מֵאֶתֿ is probably to be read with ᵐ5 ᵑ6 ᵑ7 Ke We etc., compare Deut 18:3). (β) Gen 17:3; Gen 42:30 דִּבֶּר אִתָּנוּ קָשׁוֺת, 1Kgs 8:15; Ps 109:2, & especially in Jeremiah and Ezekiel (as Jer 1:16; Jer 4:12 [Jer 52:9 אִתּוֺ] Jer 5:5; Jer 12:1; Ezek 2:1; Ezek 3:22; Ezek 3:24; Ezek 3:27; Ezek 14:4; Ezek 44:5 — all -אוֺת); Gen 24:49 to perform kindness אֵת (עִם is here more genl.), 2Sam 16:17 זֶה חַסְדְּךָ אֶתרֵֿעֶךָ֑, Ruth 2:20; וְאַתָּה עשֶֹׁה אִתִּי רָעָה, Deut 1:30; Deut 10:21; 1Sam 12:7 b, (-אוֺת) Jer 21:2; Jer 33:9; Ezek 7:27; Ezek 16:59; Ezek 22:14; Ezek 23:25; Ezek 23:29; Ezek 39:24 absolute Ezek 17:17; Ezek 20:44; Ps 109:21; Zeph 3:19 (γ) in a pregnant sense, (in dealing) with, i.e. towards (rare): Isa 66:14; Ps 67:2 יָאֵר פָּנָיו אִתָּנוּ make his face to shine with (= toward) us (varied from אֶל Num 6:25) Deut 28:8 faithful with Ps 78:8 (compare vPs 78:37 נָכוֺן עִם); Ezek 2:6 (אוֺתָ֑ךְ); Judg 16:15 וְלֹבְּךָ אֵין אִתִּי. (δ) often with verbs of fighting, striving, contending, as Gen 14:2; Gen 14:8; Gen 14:9; Num 20:13; Isa 45:9 a Isa 50:8; Ps 35:1; Prov 23:11 with בָּא בְמִשְׁפָּט Ps 143:2 (Isa 3:14 and elsewhere עִם).

2. Of localities, especially in the phrase אֲשֶׁר אֵת describing a site: Judg 3:19; Judg 4:11 אֲשֶׁר אֶתקֶֿדֶשׁ which is near Kedesh, 1Kgs 9:26; 2Kgs 9:27 (compare עם 2, which is commoner in this sense); Ezek 43:8; Exod 33:21 הִנֵּה מָקוֺם אִתִּי. Perhaps, anomalously, 1Sam 7:16 at or by all those places (but see Dr); in 2Sam 15:23 עַלפְּֿנֵי דֶרֶךְ אֶתהַֿמִּדְבָּר, אֵת = towards is against analogue: read with ᵐ5L עַלפָּֿנָיו דֶּרֶךְ הַזַּיִת אֲשֶׁר בַּמִּדְבָּר; 1Kgs 9:25 אִתּוֺ beside it (that is, the altar); but עָלָיו 1Kgs 13:1 etc. would be idiomatic, & for אִתּוֺ אֲשֶׁר Klo proposes plausibly אֶתאִֿשֹּׁוֺ (see Exod 30:20).

3. ׳אֵת פּ denotes specially,
\ \ a. in one's possession or keeping: Gen 27:15; Gen 30:29 thou knowest אֵת אֲשֶׁר הָיָה מִקְנְךָ אִתִּי ֗֗֗ how thy cattle fared with me, vGen 30:33; Lev 5:23; Lev 19:13; Deut 15:3; Judg 17:2; 1Sam 9:7 מָה אִתָּנוּ = what have we ? 1Sam 25:29; Isa 49:4 my right is with Jehovah (contr. Isa 40:27), Jer 8:8; Ps 38:11 the light of mine eyes also אֵין אִתִּי i.e. is gone from me, Prov 3:28; Prov 8:18 in his power, Jer 10:5 הֵיטֵיב אֵין אוֺתָם is not in their power, perhaps Ps 12:5. A dream, or the word of ׳י, is said to be אֵת with a prophet, 2Kgs 3:12; Jer 23:28; Jer 27:18. Metaph. of a mental quality, Prov 11:2; Prov 13:10.
\ \ b. in one's knowledge or memory: Isa 59:12 פְּשָׁעֵינוּ אִתָּנוּ our transgressions are with us, i.e. present to our minds (|| וַעֲוֺנֹתֵינוּ יְדַעֲנוּם), Job 12:3 אֶתמִֿיאֵֿין כְּמוֺאֵֿלָּה with whom are not (i.e. who knoweth not ? τίς οὐ σύνοιδε;) things like these ? Job 14:5 אִתָּךְ i.e. known to thee, Prov 2:1; Gen 40:14; Jer 12:3 (Ew Gf towards thee, as 1 d γ). So אִםיֵֿשׁ אֶתנַֿפְשְׁכֶם Gen 23:8 [2Kgs 9:15 ׳נ alone], אֶתלְֿבָבְךָ 2Kgs 10:15. compare עם 4 b, which is more frequent in this sense.
4. מֵאֵת (מֵאִתִּי, etc.; also -מֵאוֺת) from proximity with (like Greek παρά with a genitive, From de chez; in Syriac, Arabic , corresponding synonym מֵעִם; see below): coupled almost always with persons (contrast מֵעִם, a). Thus
\ \ a. with קָנָה to buy Gen 25:10 + often (compare Gen 17:27); לָקַח Gen 42:24; Exod 25:2; Lev 25:36; Num 17:17 + often; נָשָׂא Ps 24:5 שִׁלַּח, as Gen 8:8 וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶתהַֿיּוֺנָה מֵאִתּוֺ and he sent forth the dove from with him Gen 26:27 הָלַךְ Gen 26:31; 1Kgs 18:12; 1Kgs 20:36; Jer 9:1, of a wife deserting her husband Judg 19:2 וַתֵּלֶךְ מֵאִתּוֺ, Jer 3:1 (compare Isa 57:8); with simile words Gen 38:1; Deut 2:8; 1Kgs 11:23; Jer 2:37 (see Exod 5:20); Isa 54:10; Ps 66:20 with שָׁאַל Judg 1:14; 1Kgs 2:16; Ps 27:4 +, דָּרַשׁ 1Kgs 22:7 and elsewhere, שָׁמַע 1Sam 2:23. — ׳מֵאֵת פְּנֵי פּ Gen 27:30; Gen 43:34; Exod 10:11; Job 2:7; Lev 10:4 (הַקֹּדֶשׁ), 2Kgs 16:14 (הַבַּיִת). Hence
\ \ b. of rights or dues, handed over from, given on the part of, any one: Gen 47:22 חֹק מֵאֵת פַּרְעֹה; often in P, as Gen 23:20; Exod 27:21 a perpetual due מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל from, or on the part of, the children of Israel, Lev 7:34 b Lev 24:8; Num 3:9; Num 7:84 +; Deut 18:3; 1Sam 2:13 (ᵐ5, etc.; see 1 d) 2Sam 15:3 וְשֹׁמֵעַ אֵיןלְֿךָ מֵאֵת הַמֶּלֶךְ but there is none to hear thee deputed of the king, 1Kgs 5:14.
\ \ c. expressing origination: 1Kgs 1:27 אִם מֵאֵת אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ נִהְיָה. Especially ׳מֵאֵת י — of a concrete object proceeding from him: Gen 19:24 (brimstone), Num 11:31 (a wind), Num 16:35 (fire), 1Sam 16:14 (evil spirit), Isa 38:7 (a sign), Jer 51:53 (wasters), Mic 5:6 (dew); of wrath Zech 7:12 (compare Num 17:11), teaching Isa 51:4, the word of prophecy Jer 7:1 (so Jer 11:1; Jer 18:1 + often in Jeremiah) Jer 37:17; Ezek 33:30 with 'have I (we) heard' Isa 21:10; Isa 28:22; Jer 49:14 (= Obad 1:1); of an event, or phase of history Josh 11:20 הָֽיְתָה ׳מֵאֵת י it came of ׳י to..., 1Kgs 12:24; Hab 2:13; Ps 118:23 הָֽיְתָה זאֹת ׳מֵאֵת י (ᵐ5 παρὰ Κυρίου) Ezra 9:8; Neh 6:16 of trouble (רָעָה) 2Kgs 6:33; Mic 1:12 (יָרַד); of a good or evil lot, having its source in ׳י Jer 13:25; Isa 54:17; Ps 109:20, compare Job 2:10; Ps 22:26 מֵאִתְּךָ תְהִלָּתִי from thee cometh my praise (thou art the source of it); Isa 44:24 Qr מֵאִתִּי of myself (compare ἀπ’ ἐμαυτοῦ John 5:30 Kt is מִי אִתִּי who was with me ?), John 54:15 אֶפֶס מֵאוֺתִי not at my instance (compare לֹא מִנִּי John 30:1, לֹא מִמֶּנִּי Hos 8:4).
\ \ d. of a place 1Kgs 6:33 (corrupt: read with ᵐ5 ᵑ6 ᵑ9 [partly] מְזוּזֹת רְבֻעוֺת, & compare Ezek 41:21).

Note. אֵת expresses closer association than עִם: hence while מֵעִם sometimes denotes hardly more than from the surroundings or belongings of, מֵאֵת expresses from close proximity to. Thus Saul asks, מִי הָלַךְ מֵעִמָּנוּ who has gone from (those) about us ? but Jacob, speaking of the loss of Joseph, says, Gen 44:28 וַיֵּצֵא הָאֶחָד מֵאִתִּי and the one is gone from with me. מֵאֵת is accordingly preferred to מֵעִם in the sense of origination or authorship; מאת is not usual in the sense of מֵעִם c, nor מֵעִם in the sense of מֵאֵת
\ \ b..


The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
License: Public domain document; formatting developed for use in https://marvel.bible by Eliran Wong.
Source: provided by Tim Morton, the developer of Bible Analyzer