ALT - Analytical-Literal Translation

Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible. Copyright (c) 1999-2001 by Gary F. Zeolla of Darkness to Light ministry ( The ALT is available in hardcopy format from the publisher 1stBooks ( and from conventional and online bookstores. For background information on the ALT, see

The policy for reprinting and quoting the ALT is as follows:

The Analytical-Literal Translation may be quoted and/or reprinted up to and inclusive of one thousand (1,000) verses without express written consent of the copyright holder, providing the verses quoted do not constitute a complete book of the Bible nor account for as much as 50% of the total work in which they are quoted.

It is permissible to omit bracketed material, such as alternate translations, when quoting the ALT in print or in public reading. But otherwise, all quotations must conform accurately to the ALT text. The following notice of copyright must appear on the title or copyright page of any written work:

Scripture taken from the Analytical-Literal Translation of the New Testament of the Holy Bible. Copyright (c) 1999-2001 by Gary F. Zeolla of Darkness to Light ministry (

When quotations from the ALT are used in media not for sale, then the initials "ALT" should appear at the end of each quotation. Quotations and/or reprints in excess of one thousand (1,000) verses or other permission requests must be directed to and approved in writing by Gary F. Zeolla. Direct requests to: Gary F. Zeolla ~ c/o Darkness to Light ~ PO Box 138 ~ Natrona Heights, PA 15065.

Abbreviations and Notations in Brackets

Following are the meanings of abbreviations and notations seen in brackets within the Bible text.

[the] - Words added for clarity are bracketed. Within bracketed alternative translations, bracketed words indicate words added for clarity, i.e. "[or, the kingdom [of Satan]]" (Matt 8:12) indicates the words "of Satan" are added.

[Isa 7:14] - OT reference for the preceding OT quote.

"Yahweh is Salvation" - Meaning of a proper name, placed in quotation marks.

about - Modern-day equivalent for measurements and monetary units.

and throughout / and in - Means the bracketed information applies to all occurrences of the preceding word or phrase throughout the given range.

and elsewhere in book - Means the bracketed information applies to other occurrences of the preceding word or phrase in the book, but not necessarily to all other occurrences.

cp. - Cross reference ("compare").

DSS - Dead Sea Scrolls, i.e. Hebrew manuscripts of the OT dating to the second century BC.

fig., - Possible figurative meaning of preceding literal translation.

Gr. - Transliteration of the Greek word previously translated.

Heb. - Transliteration of the Hebrew word previously translated.

i.e., - Explanatory note ("that is" or "in explanation").

LXX - Septuagint, a second century B.C., Greek translation of the Hebrew Old Testament.

or, - Alternative, traditional, or less literal translation for the preceding word or phrase.

see - Cross reference.

Miscellaneous Abbreviations and Notations

{ ... } - Indicates word(s) which are bracketed in the Greek text, indicating the textual evidence is divided as to whether they are original or not. Note: Although the Byzantine Majority Text uses brackets for divided evidence words, since the ALT already is using brackets for words added for clarity, the ALT uses brace brackets for divided evidence words.

ALT - Analytical-Literal Translation of the Holy Bible

LORD - Lord - The former indicates the Old Testament verse from which the quote is taken has Yahweh (the Hebrew proper name for God); the latter indicates the OT has adonai (the general word for "lord").

_but_ - Indicates the use of the Greek strong adversative (alla) instead of the weak adversative (de, translated as "but" when used in an adversative sense).

NT - New Testament

OT - Old Testament

you* - Indicates the original is plural (also, your*). With no asterisk the second person pronoun is singular.

_you_ - Indicates the pronoun is emphasized in the Greek text (also, _I_, _he_, _she_, etc.)

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