Disciple - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Disciple[ A-1,Noun,G3101, mathetes ]
lit., a learner" (from manthano, "to learn," from a root math---, indicating thought accompanied by endeavor), in contrast to didaskalos, "a teacher;" hence it denotes "one who follows one's teaching," as the "disciples" of John, Matthew 9:14; of the Pharisees, Matthew 22:16; of Moses, John 9:28; it is used of the "disciples" of Jesus
(a) in a wide sense, of Jews who became His adherents, John 6:66; Luke 6:17, some being secretly so, John 19:38;
(b) especially of the twelve Apostles, Matthew 10:1; Luke 22:11, e.g.;
(c) of all who manifest that they are His "disciples" by abiding in His Word, John 8:31; cp. John 13:35; John 15:8;
(d) in the Acts, of those who believed upon Him and confessed Him, John 6:1-John 6:2, John 6:7; John 14:20, John 14:22, John 14:28; John 15:10; John 19:1, etc.
A "disciple" was not only a pupil, but an adherent; hence they are spoken of as imitators of their teacher; cp. John 8:31; John 15:8.
[ A-2,Noun,G3102, mathetria ]
"a female disciple," is said of Tabitha, Acts 9:36.
[ A-3,Noun,G4827, summathetes ]
means "a fellow disciple" (sun, with, and No. 1), John 11:16.
Note: In Acts 1:15, the RV translates the mss. which have adelphon, "brethren;" in Acts 20:7, RV, "we," for AV, "disciples."
[ B-1,Verb,G3100, matheteuo ]
is used in the Active Voice, intransitively, in some mss., in Matthew 27:57, in the sense of being the "disciple" of a person; here, however, the best mss. have the Passive Voice, lit., "had been made a disciple," as in Matthew 13:52, RV, "who hath been made a disciple." It is used in this transitive sense in the Active Voice in Matthew 28:19; Acts 14:21.