Baptism, Baptist, Baptize - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Baptism, Baptist, Baptize[ A-1,Noun,G908, baptisma ]
baptism," consisting of the processes of immersion, submersion and emergence (from bapto, "to dip"), is used
(a) of John's "baptism,"
(b) of Christian "baptism," See B. below;
(c) of the overwhelming afflictions and judgments to which the Lord voluntarily submitted on the cross, e.g., Luke 12:50;
(d) of the sufferings His followers would experience, not of a vicarious character, but in fellowship with the sufferings of their Master. Some mss. have the word in Matthew 20:22-Matthew 20:23; it is used in Mark 10:38-Mark 10:39, with this meaning.
[ A-2,Noun,G909, baptismos ]
as distinct from baptisma (the ordinance), is used of the "ceremonial washing of articles," Mark 7:4, Mark 7:8, in some texts; Hebrews 9:10; once in a general sense, Hebrews 6:2. See WASHING.
[ A-3,Noun,G910, baptistes ]
"a baptist," is used only of John the Baptist, and only in the Synoptists, 14 times.
[ B-1,Verb,G907, baptizo ]
"to baptize," primarily a frequentative form of bapto, "to dip," was used among the Greeks to signify the dyeing of a garment, or the drawing of water by dipping a vessel into another, etc. Plutarchus uses it of the drawing of wine by dipping the cup into the bowl (Alexis, 67) and Plato, metaphorically, of being overwhelmed with questions (Euthydemus, 277 D).
It is used in the NT in Luke 11:38 of washing oneself (as in 2 Kings 5:14, "dipped himself," Sept.); See also Isaiah 21:4, lit., "lawlessness overwhelms me." In the early chapters of the four Gospels and in Acts 1:5; Acts 11:16; Acts 19:4, it is used of the rite performed by John the Baptist who called upon the people to repent that they might receive remission of sins. Those who obeyed came "confessing their sins," thus acknowledging their unfitness to be in the Messiah's coming kingdom. Distinct form this is the "baptism" enjoined by Christ, Matthew 28:19, a "baptism" to be undergone by believers, thus witnessing to their identification with Him in death, burial and resurrection, e.g., Acts 19:5; Romans 6:3-Romans 6:4; 1 Corinthians 1:13-17; 1 Corinthians 12:13; Galatians 3:27; Colossians 2:12. The phrase in Matthew 28:19, "batizing them into the Name" (RV; cp. Acts 8:16, RV), would indicate that the "baptized" person was closely bound to, or became the property of, the one into whose name he was "batized."
In Acts 22:16 it is used in the Middle Voice, in the command given to Saul of Tarsus, "arise and be baptize," the significance of the Middle Voice form being "get thyself baptized." The experience of those who were in the ark at the time of the Flood was a figure or type of the facts of spiritual death, burial, and resurrection, Christian "baptism" being an antitupon, "a corresponding type," a "like figure," 1 Peter 3:21. Likewise the nation of Israel was figuratively baptized when made to pass through the Red Sea under the cloud, 1 Corinthians 10:2. The verb is used metaphorically also in two distinct senses: firstly, of "baptism" by the Holy Spirit, which took place on the Day of Pentecost; secondly, of the calamity which would come upon the nation of the Jews, a "baptism" of the fire of Divine judgment for rejection of the will and word of God, Matthew 3:11; Luke 3:16.