כִּפֶּר verb Pi`el etc. denominative cover over (figurative), pacify, make propitiation; —
Pi`el Perfect כִּפֶּר
[Exod 30:10] + 31 t.; 2 masculine singular suffix כִּפַּרְתָּ֑הוּ [Ezek 43:20] 3 masculine plural יְכַפְּרוּ [Ezek 43:26] 2 masculine plural כִּפַּרְתֶּם [Ezek 45:20] Imperfect יְכַפֵּר [Exod 30:10] + 10 t.; יְכַפֶּרֿ [Lev 7:7]; [Num 5:8] suffix יְכַפְּרֶנָּה [Prov 16:14] 1 singular אֲכַפֵּר [2Sam 21:3] אֲכַפְּרָה [Gen 32:21]; [Exod 32:30], etc.; Imperative כַּפֵּר [Deut 21:8] + 4 t.; Infinitive כַּפֵּר [Exod 30:15] + 28 t.; suffixes כַּפְּרִי [Ezek 16:63] כַּפֶּרְךָ [Exod 29:36] כַּפְּרָהּ [Isa 47:11] —
1. cover over, pacify, propitiate; אֲכַפָּרָה פָנָיו בַּמִּנְחָה
[Gen 32:21] let me cover his face by the present (so that he does not see the offence, i.e. pacify, him; E; RSOTJC, 2d ed., 381 'wipe clean the face,' blackened by displeasure, as the Arabs say 'whiten the face'); לֹא תוּכְלִי כַּפְּרָהּוְתִפֹּל עָלַיִךְ הֹוָה [Isa 47:11] and disaster will fall upon thee, thou wilt not be able to propitiate it (by payment of a כֹּפֶר, see [Isa 43:3]); pacify the wrath of a king [Prov 16:14] (e.g. by a gift).
2. cover over, atone for sin, without sacrifice :
\ \ a. man as subject, בַּמָּה אֲכַפֵּר
[2Sam 21:3], with what shall I cover over (namely, the bloodguiltiness of the house of Saul, says David The answer is by a death penalty of seven sons of the guilty house); חטאתכםבְּעַד [Exod 32:30] on behalf of your sins (J E; Moses, by intercession); with על of persons [Num 17:11]; [Num 17:12] (P; by incense), [Num 25:13] (P when Phinehas slays the ringleaders).
\ \ b. with God as subject, with accusative of person, cover, i.e. treat as covered, view propitiously, Yahweh's land
[Deut 32:43] (song); לְ person [Deut 21:8] (bloodguiltiness flows away in the stream), [Ezek 16:63] בְּעַד of person [2Chr 30:18] with accusative of the sin [Ps 65:4]; [Ps 78:38], probably also [Dan 9:24] ׅ || ( חטאתח֯תם; עַל of sin, [Ps 79:9]; [Jer 18:23] ׅ || ( מחה. It is conceived that God in his sovereignty may himself provide an atonement or covering for men and their sins which could not be provided by men.
3. cover over, atone for sin and persons by legal rites, in the codes of H, P, and Ezekiel: absolute הַכֹּהֵן ׳וכ and the priest shall make atonement
\ \ a. with accusative of sacred places (by the great sin-offering of the day of atonement),
[Lev 16:20]; [Lev 16:33] (twice in verse); also [Ezek 43:20]; [Ezek 43:26]; [Ezek 45:20] (by the blood of the sin-offering || חִטֵּא, טִהַר).
\ \ b. usually c. עַל (I) of things, e.g. of the altar to which the blood of the sin-offering was applied
[Exod 29:36]; [Exod 29:37]; [Exod 30:10]; [Lev 8:15] ׅ || ( קִדַּשׁ, [Lev 16:18] and specifically the horns of the altar [Exod 30:10] the holy place of the tabernacle [Lev 16:16] (by the great sin-offering, because of ( מִן ׅ the uncleannesses of thechildren of Israel and because of their transgressions); for the leprous house by ceremony of purification [Lev 14:53] ׅ || ( טִהַר; for the goat לעזאזל [Lev 16:10] (which was presented before Yahweh to consecrate him for the bearing away of the sins of the people). (2) of persons, נפשׁתיכם עלֿ, for your persons, yourselves, e.g. by the payment of atonement-money כֶּסֶף הַכִּפֻּרִים at the census [Exod 30:15]; [Exod 30:16] by the קרבן of the spoils [Num 31:50] by the blood upon the altar [Lev 17:11] in the ritual עֲלֵיהֶם, עָלָיו by ministry of priest through the blood of the sin-offering [Lev 4:20]; [Lev 4:31]; [Lev 8:34]; [Lev 10:17]; [Lev 12:7]; [Lev 12:8]; [Lev 14:19]; [Lev 14:31]; [Lev 16:30]; [Lev 16:33]; [Lev 23:28]; [Num 8:12]; [Num 8:21]; [Num 15:25]; [Num 15:28] (twice in verse); [Num 28:22]; [Num 28:30]; [Num 29:5]; [2Chr 29:24]; [Neh 10:34] of the trespass-offering [Lev 5:16]; [Lev 5:18]; [Lev 5:26]; [Lev 7:7]; [Lev 14:21]; [Lev 19:22]; [Num 5:8] the whole burnt-offering [Lev 1:4]; [Lev 14:20]; [Lev 16:24] by the oil used in purifying a leper [Lev 14:18]; [Lev 14:29] by the תרומה [Ezek 45:15] by the priestly ministry in general [1Chr 6:34] by the substitution of the Levites for the firstborn [Num 8:19]. Underlying all these offerings there is the conception that the persons offering are covered by that which is regarded as sufficient and satisfactory by Yahweh. (The purpose of the covering is stated [Lev 16:30] תִּטְהָ֑רוּיְכַפֵּר ׳עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטּאֹתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי י = shall atonement be made for you to cleanse you, from all your sins shall ye be clean before Yahweh, and [Num 8:21] וַיְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיהֶם לְטַהֲרָם and (Aaron) made atonement for them to cleanse them.)
\ \ c. the need of the atonement is expressed by מִן:
1. apart from the ritual, חטאתך תכפר
[Isa 6:7] thy sin shall be covered over ( || וְסָר עֲוֺנֶךָ; by the touch of the live coal from the altar); לָכֶםאִםיְֿכֻפַּר הֶעָוֺן הַזֶּה [Isa 22:14] surely this iniquity shall not be covered over; with בְּ instrumental בזאת יכפר עון [Isa 27:9] by this shall the iniquity of Jacob be covered over (|| הָסר חטאתו namely by the destruction of idolatrous objects); עוןבחסד יאמת יכפר [Prov 16:6] by mercy and fidelity iniquity is covered over.
2. with לְ for whom, לארץ לא יכפר לדם
[Num 35:33] for the land atonement cannot be made, in view of the blood shed in it, except by the blood of the shedder of blood; in the ritual of P, with בְּ instrumental אֲשֶׁר כֻּפַּר בָּהֶם [Exod 29:33] wherewith atonement was made (ram of consecration).
Hithpa`el Imperfect יִתְכַּפֵּר
[1Sam 3:14] with בְּ instrumental יִתְכַּפֵּר עֲוֺן בֵּיתעֵֿלִי בְּזֶבַח וּבְמִנְחָה אִםֿ the iniquity of the house of Eli shall not be covered by peace offering or minchah (in other words there was no atonement for it; compare Punic [Isa 22:14]).
Niph`al Perfect וְנִכַּפֵּר לָהֶם הַדָּם
[Deut 21:8] and the blood shall be covered for them.
The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
License: Public domain document; formatting developed for use in https://marvel.bible by Eliran Wong.
Source: provided by Tim Morton, the developer of Bible Analyzer