עַל, עָ֑ל (compare Köii. 261 f.) I. substantive height (poetry)
[Hos 7:16] יָשׁוּבוּ לֹא עָֹל they return (but) not upwards (i.e. not God-wards), [Hos 11:7] וְאֶלעַֿל יִקְרָאֻהוּ they (the prophets) call it (the people) upwards, (but) none striveth to rise; as adverb accusative, [2Sam 23:1] the man הֻ֣קַּם עָ֔ל (that) is raised up on high. With מִן, מֵעָ֑ל, (ה)שׁמים מֵעָ֑ל (the) heavens above [Gen 27:39]; [Gen 49:25]; [Ps 50:4] (opposed to מִתַּחַת [Exod 20:4]. In prose מִמַּעַל).
II. As preposition upon, and hence on the ground of, according to, on account of, on behalf of, concerning, beside, in addition to, together with, beyond, above, over, by, on to, towards, to, against (SI4.6; Moabite, Aramaic id.; Phoenician על, and עלת; Palmyrene, Nabataean על; Sabean עלי, Arabic ); — abbreviated from עֲלֵי (compare אֱלֵי, עֲדֵי), which is preserved in poetry,
[Gen 49:17] (twice in verse); [Gen 49:22] (twice in verse); [Num 24:6] (twice in verse); [Deut 32:2] (twice in verse); [Isa 18:4]; [Jer 8:18]; [Mic 5:6]; [Lam 4:5]; [1Kgs 20:41] Qr, [Job 7:1] Qr + 10 t. Psalms, 3 t. Proverbs, 15 t. Job; with suffix עָלַי; עָלֶיךָ, עָלַיִךְ ( [Ps 116:7] the Aramaizing form עָלָ֑יְכִי); עָלָיו, Psalm [1Sam 2:10] עָלָו, עָלֶיהָ; 1 plural עָלֵינוּ; 2 masculine plural עֲלֵיכֶם, [Exod 12:13] עֲלֵכֶם, 2 feminine plural עֲלֵיכֶן [Ezek 23:49] 3 masculine plural עֲלֵיהֶם, 13 t. in Pentateuch עֲלֵהֶם [Gen 45:15], etc. (Köii. 305), in poetry עָלֵ֫ימוֺ [Deut 22:23] + 11 t. Psalms, Job (perhaps sometimes, Ges«GKC:103i»§ 103i, N.); 3 feminine plural עֲלֵיהֶן, [Lev 3:4]; [Lev 3:10]; [Lev 3:15] עֲלֵהֶן (on the apparently plur. form of עֲלֵי, עָלַי etc., see Köii. 309 ff., and compare below עַד).
1. Upon, of the substratum upon which an object in any way rests, or on which an action is performed; as עלהֿארץ upon the earth
[Gen 1:11]; [Gen 1:26]; [Gen 7:6], etc., [Ps 110:6] על ארץ רבה over a wide country; על האדמה upon the ground [Ezek 20:12] + often, [Amos 7:12] עַל אֲדָמָה טְמֵאָה, [Isa 14:2] ׳על אדמת י, [Ps 137:4] עַל אַדְמַת נֵכָר (אֲרָמָה being properly ground, soil, is construed regularly with על, באדמה being very rare), more definitely על פני האדמה [Gen 6:1]; [Num 12:3] + often; על מקום [Lev 14:28]; [Jer 45:5] (uncommon: usually בְּ); [Deut 17:20]; [Isa 9:6] על מַמְלַכְתּוֺ upon his realm, [2Chr 1:1] על בָּֽתִּים very strangely [Hos 11:11] (read וַהֲשִׁבֹתִים with ᵐ5 : see 7 c α β); constantly after such verbs as נוח, ישׁב, רכב, etc., [Gen 8:4]; [Exod 11:5] כתב על to write (idiomatic) on a book or other surface, [Josh 10:13], etc.; יצא על go forth over [Gen 41:45]; [Zech 5:3]; [Ps 81:6] with נִשְׁעַן, נִסְמַךְ, בָּטַח (figurative), to lean or trust upon: [Gen 3:14] to go עַל גְּחֹנְךָ upon thy belly, [Gen 32:32] to limp עַל יְרֵכוֺ upon his thigh, [1Sam 14:13]; [Ezek 37:10]; [Judg 15:8] to smite שׁוֺק עַל יָרֵךְ leg upon thigh, i.e. so that the scattered limbs fall one upon another, [Amos 3:15]. And with reference not a horizontal surface but to a side, [Lev 1:5] + זָרַק עַל to pour against the altar, [1Kgs 6:5]; [1Kgs 6:18] to build against the temple, [Josh 10:27], etc. Figurative [Exod 23:13] let it not be heard עַל פִּיךָ upon thy mouth (in our idiom, upon thy lips, as [Prov 22:18]), [Ps 15:3] לֹא רָגַל עַל לְשֹׁנוֺ he slandereth not (i.e. prepares not slander) upon his tongue, [2Sam 23:2] וּמִלָּתוֺ עַל לְשׁוֺנִי, [Prov 16:23]; [Prov 16:27]; [Prov 31:26]; [Eccl 5:1] compare עַל שְׂפָתַיִם נָשָׂא or עַל פֶּה [Ps 16:4]; [Ps 50:16]; [Ezek 36:3]b.
\ \ a. —
\ \ \ (a) of clothing, etc., which any one wears,
[Gen 37:23] the tunic אשׁר עליו which was upon him, [Josh 9:5]; [1Kgs 11:30]; [Ruth 3:15] +; [Gen 24:30]; [Gen 38:30]; [2Sam 13:18], of a sword [2Sam 20:8]; [Song 3:8] so הָיָה עַל [Lev 16:4]; [Deut 22:5]; [Ezek 44:18]; [1Chr 15:27]; [1Chr 18:7] (|| [2Sam 8:7] אֶל); compare לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ [Lev 19:19]; [Ezek 44:17], and with הֶעֱלָה, below, 7 b.
\ \ \ (b) With verbs of covering or protecting, even though the cover or veil be not over or above the thing covered, but around or before it ('upon' referred to a side) : see גָּנַן, כָּסָה, סָכַךְ, עָטָה
[Neh 2:8] יד אלהי הטובה עלי, compare v [Neh 2:18]; [Ezra 7:6]; [Ezra 7:9]; [Ezra 8:18]; [Ezra 8:22]; [Ezra 8:31]; [Exod 27:21] the veil that is over (i.e. before) the testimony, [1Sam 25:16] חוֺמָה הָיוּ עָלֵינוּ they were a wall about us; סָגַר עַל to shut in (or down) upon [Exod 14:13]; [Job 12:14]; [Ezek 13:5]; [Job 13:27]; [Job 26:9]; [Job 36:30] he spreadeth his light עָלָיו about him.
\ \ b. Of what rests heavily upon a person, or is a burden to him,
[Isa 1:14] הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח they are a cumbrance upon me, [Job 7:20] I am a burden עָלַי upon myself, [2Sam 15:33] (compare with אֶל [2Sam 19:36]); כָּבַד עֶל to be heavy upon [Exod 5:9] and elsewhere (see כָּבַד); of sin, calamity, etc. [Isa 53:5]; [Ezek 33:10]; [Ps 88:8]; [Job 21:9]; [2Chr 15:5]; [2Chr 28:13]; [Eccl 6:1]; [Eccl 8:6] (compare 5 a β); [Lev 7:20] וְטֻמְאָתוֺ עָלָיו [Lev 22:3]: idiomatically, [Gen 48:7] מֵתָה עָלַי רָחֵל Rachel died upon me (i.e. to my sorrow), [Gen 33:13] וְהַבָּקָר עָלוֺת עָלַי are giving suck upon me (i.e. as a. care to me), [Num 11:13] יִבְכּוּ עָלַי they weep upon me (vexing me), [Judg 14:16]; [Judg 14:17]; [Judg 19:2] (see Be), [1Sam 21:6] to play the mad man upon me, [Jer 12:11].
\ \ c. Of a duty, payment, care, etc., imposed upon a person, or devolving on him, as שָׂם עַל to lay upon,
[Exod 5:8]; [Exod 21:22]; [Exod 21:30] (שָׁת), [Exod 22:4], compare [Gen 47:26]; [2Chr 35:25] with other verbs, [Job 38:10]; [Deut 24:5]; [Deut 26:6]; [2Kgs 15:20]; [2Kgs 18:14]; [2Kgs 23:33]; [Neh 10:33] (twice in verse); [Esth 1:8]; [Esth 9:21]; [Esth 9:27]; [Esth 9:31] with צִוָּה enjoin upon [Gen 2:16] + often, כתב prescribe to [2Kgs 22:13]; [Ps 40:8], נטשׁ cast upon [1Sam 17:20] ( [1Sam 17:22] על יד), נתן על יד (figurative) [Gen 42:37]; [2Kgs 12:12]; [2Kgs 22:5], compare [1Kgs 14:27], עזב [Ps 10:14], גלל [Ps 37:5], השׁליך [Ps 55:23], פקד [Job 34:13] and elsewhere; [Gen 30:28] נָקְבָה שְׂכָֽרְךָ עָלַי fix thy wages upon me (name thy wages to me), [Gen 34:12] הַרְבּוּ עָלַי מְאֹד מֹהַר וּמַתָּן multiply upon me, etc., [2Sam 19:39] (pregnantly) whatsoever thou choosest (and layest) upon me; without a verb, [Judg 19:20] רַק כָּלמַֿחְסֹערךָ עָלָ֑י only let all thy wants be upon me, [Ezra 10:4]; [Ps 56:13] עָלַי נְדָרֶיךָ thy vows are upon me (i.e. I owe them: compare [Num 30:7]; [Num 30:9]; [Num 30:15]), [Prov 7:14] זִבְחֵי שְׁלָמִים עָלָ֑י peace-offerings were upon me (= were due from me); perhaps [Ps 62:1]; [Ps 77:1] (to the charge of); with an infinitive [2Sam 18:11] וְעָלַי לָתֵת and it would have been incumbent on me to give, etc., [1Kgs 4:7]; [Ezra 10:12] (accents [Baer], RVm), [Neh 13:3], compare [Zech 12:2] (Ew RVm); [Num 7:9] (P) the service of ... was upon them, [Ezek 45:17], so especially late [1Chr 9:27]; [1Chr 9:33]; [1Chr 23:31]; [2Chr 2:3] לעולם זאת על ישׂראל [2Chr 8:15]; [2Chr 24:9]; [Ezra 7:11]; [Neh 11:23]; [Isa 9:5] and the government is upon, his shoulder (compare [Isa 22:22]), [2Chr 25:3]; [Ps 7:11] ׳מָֽגִנִּי עַלאֿ my shield rests upon God (he has undertaken my defence), [Ps 62:8] עלאֿלהים יִשְׁעִי וּכְבֹדִי.
\ \ d. על is used idiomatically to give pathos to the expression of an emotion, by emphasizing the person who is its subject, and who, as it were, feels it acting upon him:
[Ps 42:6] why art thou cast down, O my soul, וַתֶּהֱמִי עָלַי and disquieted upon me? v [Ps 42:7] my soul upon me is cast down, v [Ps 42:12]; [Ps 43:5]; [Lam 3:20]; [Ps 131:2] כְּגָמֻל עֲלֵי אִמּוֺ כַּגָּמוּל עָלַי נַפְשִׁי is my soul upon me; [Ps 142:4] בְּהִתְעַטֵף עָלַי רוּחִי when my spirit faints upon me, [Ps 143:4]; [Jonah 2:8]; [Jer 8:18] עָלַי לִבִּי דַרוָָּֽי ׃ my heart upon me is sick, [Job 14:22] (twice in verse) (compare Di), [Hos 11:8] נהפך עלי לבי my heart is turned (altered) upon me, [1Sam 17:32]; [1Sam 25:36]; [Neh 5:7] וַיִמָּלֵךְ לִבִּי עָלַי and my heart took counsel upon me: compare [Ps 42:5] I will pour out my soul upon me, [Job 30:16]; [Job 10:1] אעזבה עלי שׂיחי I will let loose my complaint upon me. (Thes apud me, mecum. The rend. 'within me' alters entirely the point of view of the Hebrew expression, and is incorrect.) Denoting with some emphasis the subject of an experience, [Job 30:2] עלימו אבד כָּ֑לַךְ, [Dan 2:1] his sleep נִהְיְתָה עָלָיו was done with upon him (compare Aramaic [Dan 6:19] נַדַּת עֲלוֺהִי), [Dan 10:8] וְהוֺדִי נֶהְפַּךְ עָלַי (compare [Dan 5:9]; [Dan 7:28]): also, rather differently, [Lev 18:18]b [Jer 49:20] אִם לֹא יַשִׁים עֲלֵיהֶם נְוֵהֶם, [Mic 7:13]; [Ps 90:17]b; [Ps 7:9] according to my perfectness upon me, [Ezek 18:20]; [Ezek 22:3]; [2Chr 36:8].
\ \ e. חָיָה עַל to live upon (as upon a foundation or support; compare
[Isa 3:1], and Ζῆν ἐπί τινος), [Deut 8:3] עַלהַֿלֶּחֶם, [Isa 38:16] (compare Hi), [Gen 27:40] על חרבך תחיה upon ( = by) thy sword thou shalt live (compare Kazwiniii. 17 ap. Tu), [Ezek 33:19], compare v [Ezek 33:26]. feminine Of the ground, or basis, on which a thing is done, as [Gen 24:9] על הדבר הזה, [Lev 17:12] if he offers it עַל תּוֺדָה on the ground of a thanks-giving, [Num 6:21] עַל נִזְרוֺ, vb [Ezek 16:15]; [Ezek 28:17]; [Dan 8:25] עַל שִׂכְלוֺ, [Dan 9:18] עַל צדקותינו, (with this use is extended so as to denote explicitly on condition of). Hence
\ \ \ (a) the basis being conceived as regulative, על comes to denote the norm or standard (compare German 'auf die Art' WAG ii. § 59 i): the transition may be seen in a passage like
[Exod 24:8] the covenant which ׳י made with you on the basis of (על), or in agreement with, all these words (compare על פי [Exod 34:27]), [Num 35:24] האלה על המשׁפטים, [Deut 17:11]; [Jer 30:18] the palace shall sit (i.e. be inhabited: see ישׁב) עַל מִשְׁפָּטוֺ in accordance with its manner, [Ps 94:20] who frames mischief עֲלֵיחֹֿק in accordance with a law, ... על פי according to the mouth (i.e. command, [Gen 45:21] + oft, evidence [Deut 17:6]; [Deut 19:15], sentence [Deut 21:5]) of . . .; עַל שֵׁם ֗֗֗֗ according to the name of . . . (mostly with call, be called) [Gen 48:6]; [Exod 28:21]; [2Sam 18:18] +, compare [1Chr 23:14]; [Exod 6:26]; [Exod 12:51] על צִבְאֹתָם according to their hosts (usually לְ), [Num 1:18] על משׁפחתם (usually לְ) v [Num 1:52]; [Num 2:2]; [Num 2:34]; [Num 7:3] (|| ל), [Deut 18:8] (probably); עַל יְדֵי according to the hands (direction) of [Jer 5:31]; [Jer 33:13] al.; [Ps 110:4] ׳עַל דִּבְרָתִי מ after the manner of M.; [Prov 25:11] (probably) a word spoken עַל אָעפנָיו in accordance with its circumstances = appositely; of the tune according to which a song is to be sung (RV. set to) [Ps 6:1] ( [1Chr 15:21]), [Ps 8:1]; [Ps 9:1]; [Ps 12:1]; [Ps 45:1]; [Ps 46:1] ( [1Chr 15:20]) עַלעֲֿלָמוֺת (perhaps, however, in the manner of maidens = for 'sopranos'), [Ps 53:1]; [Ps 56:1]; [Ps 60:1]; [Ps 69:1]; [Ps 81:1]; [Ps 84:1]; [Ps 88:1] (compare in Syriac ).
\ \ \ (b) The basis being conceived as involving the ground, על denotes the cause or reason, on account of, because of,
[Gen 20:3] lo thou shalt die עַל הָאִשָּׁה on account of the woman, [Gen 21:12]; [Gen 26:7]; [Gen 26:9]; [Gen 27:41]; [Gen 42:21]; [Lev 4:3]; [Lev 4:28]; [Lev 5:18]; [Lev 19:17]; [Lev 26:18]; [Lev 26:24]; [Lev 26:28]; [Deut 9:18]; [Deut 24:16] fathers shall not be put to death עלבֿנים on account of children, [Deut 31:18]; [Josh 9:20]; [Jer 1:16]; [Jer 5:9]; [Ezek 18:26] עליהם (|| [Ezek 33:18] בָּהֶם), [Prov 28:21]; [Ps 39:12]; [Ps 50:8] + often; [Ps 44:23] עָלֶיךָ הֹרַגְנוּ on thy account are we slain all the day, [Ps 69:8]; [Jer 15:15] in the phrases דְּבַר עַ֗֗֗ל, עַל אוֺדוֺת, עַל זֹאת and עַל זֶה on this account, עַל מָה on what account ? עַלכֵּֿן = therefore (see דָּבָר, אוֺדָה, etc.); before an infinitive, as [Exod 17:7] ׳וְעַל נַסּוֺתָם אֶתיֿ and on, account of their trying ׳י, [Amos 1:3] עַל דּוּשָׁם on account of their threshing = because they threshed, v [Amos 1:6] v [Amos 1:9] v [Amos 1:11] v [Amos 1:13], etc., [Jer 2:35] עַל אָמְרֵךְ because of thy saying, [Jer 9:12]; [Jer 16:18] +; and as a conjunction both with and without אֲשֶׁר or כִּי (see below III). And so often of the ground or cause of fear, grief, delight, or other emotions, e.g. [Exod 18:9]; [Exod 32:14] (נִחַם repent: so often), [1Sam 4:13]; [1Sam 30:6]; [2Sam 1:26]; [2Sam 3:8]; [1Kgs 21:4]; [2Kgs 6:11]; [Jer 10:19]; [Amos 6:6].
\ \ \ (c) Somewhat more strongly, on behalf of, for the sake of,
[Gen 19:17] escape על נפשׁך forthy life; [Judg 9:17]; [2Kgs 10:3] נִלְחֵם עַל (usually ל); [1Kgs 2:18] I will speak on thy behalf to the king, v [1Kgs 2:19] ( [2Kgs 4:13] לְ); [Esth 4:16]; [Esth 4:8]; [Esth 7:7]; [Esth 8:11]; [Esth 9:16]; [Dan 12:1] על עמד stand up (in late Hebrew) on behalf of; התפלל על intercede for (usually בעד) [Job 42:8]; [Neh 1:6]; [2Chr 30:18]; [2Chr 29:21]; [Ezra 8:35] and very often with כִּפֶּר (q. v.) make atonement for. (Not very common with other verbs.)
\ \ \ (d) Sometimes it acquires almost a final force, for;
[Exod 12:4]; [Exod 29:36]; [Exod 30:16]; [Deut 27:13] there shall stand עַלהַֿקְּלָלָה (|| v [Deut 27:12] לְבָרֵךְ), [Ps 89:4] עַלמַֿהשָּֿׁוְא בָּרָאתָ כָלעֿבּנֵיאָֿדָם unto what vanity hast thou created, etc.! [Prov 29:5]b [2Chr 23:18]; [Eccl 3:17].
\ \ \ (e) Of a condition, or attendant circumstances (rare; so , WAG ii § 59 e):
[Ps 50:5] זָ֑בַח׃ עֲלֵי upon, with sacrifice, [Ps 92:4] ׳עֲלי עָשׂוֺר וגו with a ten-stringed instrument, with a harp, with sounding music on a lyre; עַל רִיב upon occasion of a law-suit [Exod 23:2]; [Ezek 44:24], עַל יוֺם טוֺב [1Sam 25:8] (compare at a time of. . . Qor 28:14), [Neh 12:22] (? read עַד BeRy), [Isa 18:4] כְּחֹם צַח עֲלֵי אוֺר at time of sunshine, [Isa 64:11] עַל אֵלֶּה, [Jer 8:18] עֲלֵי יָגוֺן at time of sorrow, [Jer 16:7] (but Gie עַל אָבֵל to): with abstract substantives to form a periphrase for adverbs, [Lev 5:22] and swear עַל שֶׁקֶר upon falseness = falsely, [Jer 6:14] = [Jer 8:11] to heal a wound עַל נְקַלָּה lightly, easily, [Ps 31:24] עַל יֶתֶר = abundantly, [Isa 60:7] עַל רָצוֺן = acceptably (compare = with delight).
\ \ \ (f) It hence acquires the force of in spite of, notwithstanding (so , WAG ii. § 59 h),
[Job 10:7] עַל דַּעְתְּךָ in spite of thy knowing, [Job 34:6] משׁפטי על notwithstanding my right I am to be a liar (Di De Da RV: otherwise Hi RVm). compare below, III c b.
\ \ \ (g) Upon, concerning, with verbs of speaking, as דִּבֶּר
[Judg 9:3]; [1Kgs 5:13], אָמַר, [Jer 16:3]; [Jer 27:19] (|| אל) [Jer 33:4], hearing [Gen 41:15] שָׁמַעְתִּי עָלֶיךָ I have heard concerning thee, saying, etc., [1Kgs 10:6]; [Isa 37:9] (|| [2Kgs 19:9] אל), disputing [Gen 26:11], telling [1Sam 27:11]; [Joel 1:3], commanding [2Sam 14:8]; [1Kgs 11:10], being vexed [1Kgs 21:4]; [2Kgs 6:11], crying [2Kgs 8:5], confessing [Ps 32:5]; [Neh 1:6] of the object of a prophecy or vision [1Kgs 22:8]; [Isa 1:1]; [Isa 2:1] and often with similar verbs.
\ \ \ (h) In a somewhat weaker sense, in the matter of, as regards,
[Gen 41:32] וְעַל הִשָּׁנוֺת הַחֲלוֺם, [Exod 22:8]; [Ruth 4:7]; [Lev 5:22]; [Lev 5:26]; [Dan 9:14]b [Neh 9:33] חָטָא עַל [Lev 4:14] (|| בָּהּ v [Lev 4:23], cognate accusative v [Lev 4:28]), [
The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon]
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