אִם conjunction (= Aramaic if [and in , אֶלָּא = if not, except], Arabic if [and in = if not, except], Ethiopic (§mma) if = מָה + אִם ( + ) [and in (allâ) if not, but], Assyrian umma; also in Arabic 'An?' = , compare הַאִם: see NöM p. 208, ZMG 1886, p. 739; WAG i. § 367 e)
1. hypothetical particle if.
\ \ a. construction (see more fully Dr§ 136-138, 143 FriedrichDie Hebr. Condit. sätze 1884): (1) with imperfect (continued by perfects & waw consecutive; apodosis usually begins with perfect & waw consecutive or bare imperfect; or, if necessary, with imperative or jussive)
\ \ \ (a) of future time:
[Gen 18:26] אִםאֶֿמְצָא if I shall find 50 righteous in Sodom, וְנָשָׂאתִי I will pardon, etc., [Gen 24:8]; [Gen 32:9]; [Deut 1:52] b [1Kgs 6:12]; [Ps 89:31]; [Gen 42:37]; [Judg 13:16]; [1Kgs 1:52] a [Ps 132:12].
\ \ \ (b) of past time (rare, but classical):
[Gen 31:8] אִם יאֹמַר if everhe said . . . וְיָָֽלְדִוּ then they used to bear, etc., [Exod 40:37] & in the protestations [Job 31:7]; [Job 31:13]; [Job 31:16]; [Job 31:25] etc. (alternating with pff., see below, & with jussives in apodosis)
\ \ \ (c) assuming a purely imaginary case (with imperfect in both clauses, like the double optative in Greek), if, though:
[Gen 13:16] so that אִםיֿוּכַל if a man were able to number the stars, thy seed also יִמָּנֶה might be numbered, [Num 22:18]; [Isa 1:18] כַּשָּׁנִים יַלְבִּינוּ ׳אִםיִֿהְיוּ ח though your sins were as scarlet, they should become white as snow, [Amos 9:2-4] אִםיַֿחְתְּרוּ though they were to dig into Sheôl, from thence תִּקָּחֵם would my hand fetch them, [Ps 27:3]; [Ps 139:8] +. (2) with participle (expressing either a present process, or an approaching future: apodosis as 1 a) [Gen 24:42]; [Gen 24:49]; [Judg 6:36]; [Judg 9:15]; [Judg 11:9] אִם מְשִׁיבִים אַתֶּם if ye are going to bring me back . . . ׳וְנָתַן י then ׳י will, etc.; similarly with יֵשׁ or אֵין [Gen 44:26]; [Exod 22:2]; [1Sam 20:8]; [1Sam 23:23] & with no explicit copula [Deut 22:2]; [Deut 25:2]; [Lev 1:3]; [Lev 1:14], etc. (3) with perfect
\ \ \ (a) of future or present time (continued by perfects & waw consecutive: apodosis as 1 a)
[Gen 43:9] אִםלֹֿא הֲבִיאֹתִיו אֵלֶיךָ וְהִצַּגְתִּיו לְפָנֶיךָ if I do not bring him back (si eum non reduxero) and set him before thee, I will be guilty for ever, [Gen 47:6] if thou knowest that there are men of worth among them וְשַׂמְתָּם then make them, etc., [Judg 16:17]; [2Sam 15:33]; [2Kgs 7:4]; [Ps 41:7]; [Ps 94:18]; [Job 7:4]; [Job 9:30]f. [Job 10:14] אִם חָטָאתִי וּשְׁמַרְתָּ֑נִי if I sin, thou watchest me. On אִםנָֿא [Gen 18:3] and elsewhere see נָא.
\ \ \ (b) of past time, whether
\ \ \ (a) in actual fact, or (β) in an assumed case (the perfect is here continued by the imperfect and waw consecutive; apodosis begins as before).
\ \ \ (a)
[Judg 9:16-19] אִם ֗֗֗ עֲשִׂיתֶם if ye have done honestly וַתַּמְלִיכוּ and have made Abimelech king . . ., [1Sam 26:19] especially in protestations, as [Ps 7:4] אִם עָשִׂיתִי זאת if I have done this . . ., let the enemy pursue my soul, etc. [Jer 33:25]f.; [Job 31:5]f; [Job 31:9], etc.
\ \ \ (b)
[Num 5:27] if she have defiled herself וַתִּמְעֹל and been faithless, וּבָאוּ then shall they come, etc., [Num 15:24]; [Num 35:22-24].
\ \ \ (c) with bare perfect in apodosis, in sense of If ... had ..., only
[Deut 32:30] אִםלֹֿא כִּי were it not that ..., [Ps 73:15]. (לוּ is more usual in such cases.) (4) with infinitive once (si vera 1.) [Job 9:27] אִם אָמְרִי = if I say (literally if (there is) my saying). — Note that the verb following אִם is often strengthened by the infinitive absolute, as [Exod 15:26]; [Exod 19:5]; [Exod 21:5]; [Exod 22:3]; [Exod 22:12]; [Exod 22:16]; [Exod 22:22]; [Judg 11:30]; [Judg 14:12]; [Judg 16:11] etc.; compare DrSm i. 20, 6.
\ \ b. Special uses: (1) repeated ... אִם אִם whether ... or (sive ... sive)
[Exod 19:13]; [Deut 18:3]; [2Sam 15:21] similarly אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם [Gen 31:52]; [Jer 42:6]; [Ezek 2:5]; [Eccl 11:3]; [Eccl 12:14] (compare ... , ... PS250; ... & ... ).(2) After an oath (expressed, or merely implied) אִם (the formula of imprecation being omitted) becomes an emphatic negative, and אִםלֹֿא an emphatic affirmative: [2Sam 11:11] by thy life אִםאֶֿעֱשֶׂה אֶתהַֿדָּבָר הַזֶּה (may God bring all manner of evil upon me) if I do this thing! = surely I will not do this thing! (compare the full phrases in [1Sam 3:17]; [2Kgs 6:31]) [Gen 14:23]; [Gen 42:15]; [Num 14:23]; [1Sam 3:14]; [1Sam 19:6]; [2Kgs 2:2]; [2Kgs 3:14] & often; [Isa 22:14]; [Ps 89:36]; [Ps 95:11]; [Job 6:28] אִםלֹֿא [Num 14:28]; [Josh 14:9]; [1Kgs 20:23]; [2Kgs 9:26]; [Isa 5:9]; [Isa 14:24]; [Jer 15:11]; [Jer 49:20]; [Job 1:11] + especially Ezekiel; after a negative clause, emphasizing a contrasted idea, [Gen 24:38] (where the explanation by Aramaic אֶלָּא is not supported by Hebrew usage), compare [Jer 22:6]. Repeated, אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם [2Sam 20:20]; [2Kgs 3:14]; [Isa 62:8]; [Jer 38:16]; [Ezek 14:16]. In adjurations (with 2nd or 3rd person) = that not [Gen 21:23]; [Gen 26:29]; [Gen 31:50]; [1Sam 24:22]; [1Kgs 1:51]; [Song 2:7]; [Song 3:5] +. Of past or present time: [1Sam 25:34] as ׳י liveth (I say) that, unless thou hadst hastened ..., כִּי אִם נוֺתַר that surely there had not been left ...! [1Sam 17:55] as thy soul liveth אִםיָֿדַעְתִּי if I Know it! [1Kgs 17:12]; [1Kgs 18:10] — both אִםיֵֿשׁ (כִּי here merely introduces the fact sworn to, & need not be translated; so [2Sam 3:35]: see כִּי); [Ps 121:2] אִםלֹֿא (after a negative clause: compare above [Gen 24:38]). compare Str§ 90.(3) Part, of wishing, if but ...! oh that ...! (rare) [Ps 81:9] If thou wouldest hearken to me! [Ps 95:7]; [Ps 139:19]; [Prov 24:11]. compare [Exod 32:32]. With an imperative (si vera lectio) [Job 34:16] וְאִםִֿבּינָה; and with an anacoluthon, [Gen 23:13] (P) אִםאַֿתָּה לוּ שְׁמָעֵנִי if thou! — oh that thou wouldst hear me!(4) Nearly = when — with the perfect:
\ \ \ (a) of past,
[Gen 38:9]; [Num 21:9] וְהָיָה אִםנָֿשַׁךְ ֗֗֗ וְרָאָה and it used to be, if or when a serpent had bitten a man, that he would look, etc., [Judg 6:3]; [Ps 78:34] (see Dr§ 136 δ Obs.); [Amos 7:2].
\ \ \ (b) of present or future,
[Isa 4:4] אִם רָחַץ when the Lord shall have washed, [Isa 24:13]; [Isa 28:25] compare [Num 36:4] (with the imperfect)
\ \ c. Compounded with other particles: —
\ \ \ (a) בִּלְתִּי אִם except if, except,
[Gen 47:18]; [Judg 7:14]; [Amos 3:3]; [Amos 3:4]. (β) הֲלוֺא אִם [2Kgs 20:19] (for which [Isa 39:7] has sim-ply כִּי), perhaps Is it not (good), if ...? (De Di). (γ) כִּיאִֿם, q. v. (δ) עַד אִם [Gen 24:19]; [Gen 24:33]; [Isa 30:17]; [Ruth 2:21], & עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם [Gen 28:15]; [Num 32:17]; [Isa 6:11], until, properly until if or when. (ε) רַק אִם if only (see below רַק). אִםלֹֿא in [Ezek 3:6]b is very difficult. The Vrss render If I had sent, etc., implying לֻא for אִםלֹֿא (for Ew's אִםלֻֿא = אִלּוּ, q. v., is precarious): Ges Hi Co 'but (אִםלֹֿא after a negative, compare above [Gen 24:38]; [Ps 131:2]) unto them (Israel) have I sent thee: they can understand thee' (but understand is a dubious rendering of שָׁמַע אֶל).
2. Interrogative particle a. in direct question:
\ \ \ (a) alone (not frequently and usually = Num? expecting the answer No, especially in a rhet. style):
[Gen 38:17]; [1Kgs 1:27]; [Judg 5:8] מָגֵן אִםיֵֿרָאֶה וָרֹמַח was there a shield to be seen or a spear ...? [Isa 29:16] and repeated [Amos 3:6]; [Jer 48:27]; [Job 6:12].
\ \ \ (b) more frequently in disjunctive interrogation:
\ \ \ (a) הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם, expressing a real alternative
[Josh 5:13] הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִםלְֿצָרֵינוּ art thou for us, or for our enemies? [Judg 9:2]; [1Kgs 22:6]; [1Kgs 22:15]: more often expressing a merely formal alternative, especially in poetry (a rhetorical Num?) [Gen 37:8]; [Num 11:12]; [Num 11:22]; [Judg 11:25]b [2Sam 19:36]; [Isa 10:15]; [Isa 66:8]; [Jer 3:5]; [Hab 3:8]; [Ps 77:10]; [Ps 78:20]; [Job 4:17]; [Job 6:5]; [Job 6:6]; [Job 10:4]; [Job 10:5]; [Job 11:7] etc. (β) הֲ ֗֗֗ וְאִם (rarer than הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם, but similar in use) [2Sam 24:13] (a real alt.); [Isa 49:24]; [Isa 50:2]; [Jer 5:9] ( [Jer 5:29] אִם) [Jer 14:22]; [Joel 1:2]; [Joel 4:4]; [Job 8:3]; [Job 11:2]; [Job 21:4]; [Job 22:3]; [Job 34:17]; [Job 40:8]f. (formal); [Gen 17:17] P (with an anacoluthon) shall a child ...? וְאִםשָֿׂרָה הֲבַתתִּֿשְׁעִים שָׁנָה תֵּלֵד or Sarah, — shall she that is 90 years old bear? [Prov 27:24] (וְאִם after negative clause),
\ \ b. in oblique interrogation, if, whether:
\ \ \ (a) alone, after verbs of seeing, inquiring, etc.
[2Kgs 1:2]; [Jer 5:1]; [Jer 30:6]; [Mal 3:10]; [Ps 139:24]; [Song 7:13]; [Lam 1:12]; [Ezra 2:59] once מִי יוֺדֵעַ אִם who knoweth if ...? i.e. (like haud scio an) perhaps [Esth 4:14] (older synonym מִי יוֺדֵעַ alone: see [2Sam 12:22]; [Joel 2:14]; [Jonah 3:9]).
\ \ \ (b) disjunctively הֲ ֗֗֗ אִם
[Gen 27:21]; [Num 13:18-20] so אִם ֗֗֗ וְאִם [Josh 24:15].
\ \ c. compounded with הֲ, הַאִם
[Num 17:28] הַאִם תַּמְנוּ לִגְוֺעַ probably an emphatic Num? Shall we ever have finished dying? [Job 6:13] difficult: perhaps Is it that my help is not in me? (a forcible means of expressing that that which might be thought impossible is nevertheless the case); Hi as an aposiop., If my help is not in me (am I still to wait) ? (The view that הַאִם = הֲלֹא nonne? is inconsistent with the fact that אִם in a question has regularly the force of Num?)
אֵם see אמם. Below
אַמָּה, אֻמָּה see אמם.
The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
License: Public domain document; formatting developed for use in https://marvel.bible by Eliran Wong.
Source: provided by Tim Morton, the developer of Bible Analyzer