BDB4224 [H3782]

כָּשַׁל verb stumble, stagger, totter (Late Hebrew id.; Syriac [] give offence (occasion for stumbling), σκανδαλιζω, (chiefly Ethpe`el Aph`el), see PS Brock Schw; Arabic is be heavy, sluggish); —

Qal Perfect ׳כ Neh 4:4 +, (Hos 5:5b read יִכָּשֵׁל, compare We), כָּֽשְׁלָה Isa 3:8; Isa 59:14 כָּֽשְׁלוּ Jer 46:6 +, כָּשַׁלְנוּ Isa 59:10, etc.; Imperfect 3 masculine plural יכשׁ֑ולו Prov 4:16 Kt (but read Hiph`il, q. v., so Qr); יכשׁלו Nah 3:3 Kt (but read Perfect וְכָֽשְׁלוּ so Qr); Infinitive absolute כָּשׁוֺל Isa 40:30 (c. Niph`al Imperfect); Participle active כּוֺשֵׁל Isa 5:27 + 2 t., כּשֵׁל 2Chr 28:15 Paslm 2Chr 105:37 feminine plural כּשְׁלוֺת Isa 35:3
1. stumble at, over, something, with ב (literally by means of), Nah 3:3, ׳גִּבּוֺר בְּגִבּוֺר כ Jer 46:13 (+ נָפַל), compare Lev 26:37 ׳וּנְעָרִיס בָּעֵץ כ Lam 5:13 i.e. stagger (of toil in captivity); absolute Isa 5:27 ׅ || (עָיֵף, כָּֽשְׁלוּ וְנָפָ֑לוּ Jer 46:6, compare ׳הִרְבָּה כּוֺשֵׁ֑ל גַּםנָֿפַל אישׁ וגו vJer 46:16 (strange; Gie following in part ᵐ5 ᵑ6, עֶרְבְּךָ כָּשַׁל וְנָפַל thy mixed people — compare Jer 25:20, etc. — hath stumbled and hath fallen); often figurative of overthrow, throughdivine judgment, with בְּ at, (see above) Jer 6:21, so Isa 8:15 (+ נָפַל etc.) according to Ges Hi Bhul Che Di; < בָּם = among them, — Israel and Judah, — as ב in vIsa 8:16, so Ew De Du EV; Hos 4:5 (twice in verse); Hos 5:5; Hos 14:2 (בַּעֲוֺנֶָֽךָ, בְּ probably instrumental); absolute of Babylon, under figure of זָדוֺן, ונפל ׳כ Jer 50:32 ונפל ׳כ Paslm Jer 27:2; Isa 3:8; Isa 31:3 (both || נפל); of אֱמֶת Isa 59:14 in metaphor of anxiety, distress Isa 59:10, Paslm Isa 107:12.
2. totter, of knees, literal מִצּוֺם ׳בִּרְכַּי כ Paslm Isa 109:24 my knees totter from fasting; figurative Isa 35:3 (|| יָדַיִם רָפוֺת) כּוֺשֵׁל tottering one, literal Job 4:4; 2Chr 28:15 Paslm 2Chr 105:37 hence figurative, fail, of strength (כֹּחַ) Neh 4:4 Paslm Neh 31:11 — Infinitive absolute כָּשׁוֺל, see below Niph`al Niph`al Perfect consecutive וְנִכְשַׁל Dan 11:9, וְנִכְשְׁלוּ vDan 11:33, וְנִכְשָׁ֑לוּ vDan 11:14 Imperfect יִכָּשֵׁל Ezek 33:12 + Hos 5:5b (ᵐ5. as va, so We; ᵑ0 כָּשַׁל), 2 masculine singular תִּכָּשֵׁל Prov 4:12, בִּכָּֽשְׁלוּ Prov 24:17 (yet see Ges«GKC:51»§ 51, R. 1), בְּהִכָּֽשְׁלָם Dan 11:34 Participle נִכְשָׁל Zech 12:8 plural נִכְשָׁלִים 1Sam 2:4
1. stumble (= Qal) Nah 2:6; Isa 63:13; Jer 31:9 usually figurative:
\ \ a. of misfortune Prov 24:17 (|| נפל), negative Prov 4:12.
\ \ b. of divine judgement (with בְּ at) Prov 4:19; Prov 24:16, negative Ezek 33:12 see also Hos 14:10 (בְ location), Jer 20:11; Dan 11:14; Dan 11:35, יִכָּֽשְׁלוּ וְיאֹבְדוּ מִפָּנֶיךָ Ps 9:4 especially = be overthrown, of nations, armies, etc., Hos 5:5 (with בַּעֲוֺנָם, compare Hos 14:2 Qal), Jer 6:15 || נפל, compare Jer 8:12 (|| id.), Dan 11:19 ( + נפל), vDan 11:33 (בְ instrumental), vDan 11:34 vDan 11:41.
2. be tottering, feeble, כָּשׁוֺל יִכָּשֵׁ֑לוּ Isa 40:30 (opposed to יַחֲלִיפוּ כֹחַ vIsa 40:31); so participle 1Sam 2:4; Zech 12:8. Pi`el only apparent, תְּכַשְּׁלִי Ezek 36:14, read תְּשַׁכְּלִי with Qr Vrss EV Sm Co Da (see also Hiph`il near the end). Hiph`il Perfect הִכְשִׁיל Lam 1:14 הִכְשַׁלְתֶּם Mal 2:8 Imperfect 3 masculine singular suffix יַכְשִׁילְךָ 2Chr 25:8 2 feminine singular תַּכְשִׁלִי Ezek 36:15 (but strike out ᵐ5 Co; read תשׁכלי, as vEzek 36:14 other Vrss Sm Da); 3 masculine plural יַכְשִׁילוּ Prov 4:16 Qr (Kt see below Qal), וַיַּכְשִׁילֻהוּ Paslm Prov 64:9, וַיַּכְשִׁלוּם Jer 18:15 (so ᵑ7; Gie, after ᵐ5. ᵑ6, וַיִּכְשְׁלוּ, [< וַיִּכָּֽשִׁלוּ]); Infinitive construct הַכְשִׁיל 2Chr 25:8, sf הַכְשִׁילוֺ 2Chr 28:23
1. cause to stumble, figurative:
\ \ a. = bring injury or ruin to, abs Prov 4:16 of punishment Ps 64:9 (indefinite subject; si vera lectio; text probably corrupt, see Che Bae).
\ \ b. = overthrow, of nation, army, etc., 2Chr 25:8 (followed by לִפְנֵי אוֺיֵב) compare v2Chr 25:8 (opposed to עזר); cause overthrow 2Chr 28:23. — On Ezek 36:15 see above
\ \ c. morally, Jer 18:15 (בְּ local), Mal 2:8 (בְּ instrumental).
2. make feeble, weak, הִכְשִׁיל כֹּחִי Lam 1:14 (of God's dealing with Jerusalem) Hoph`al only Participle והיו מֻכְשָׁלִים לְפָנֶיךָ Jer 18:23 either and let them be ones who have stumbled before thee, i.e. regard them as such (Hi Gf VB), or and let them be ones overthrown before thee (Gie; so Qr according to Gf). So also in Ezek 21:20 according to Co, compare Sm Da (ᵑ0 מִכְשֹׁלִים, see מִכְשׁוֺל).

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
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