BDB3127 [H2763]

I. [חָרַם] verb Hiph`il ban, devote, exterminate (MI17 החרמתה of devoting, dedicating a city to Chemosh, in clause with כי explaining massacre of all inhabitants; the altar-hearth of ׳י there was dragged before Chemosh; be prohibited, forbidden, unlawful, become sacred; II. make, pronounce sacred, inviolable; Ethiopic prohibit from common use, consecrate to God, esteem unlawful; Palmyrene חרם = consacrÈ VogNo 35; Nabataean id., Eutp. 28; Sabean מחרם sanctuary, temple, OsZMG 1865, 176. 252, חרמתן DHMZMG 1875, 594; Aramaic אַחֲרִים, and especially anathematize, excommunicate; see also WeSkizzen iii, 165, DrSm 100 ff., RSSemitic i. 140 (150)) — Hiph`il Perfect הֶהֱרִים Josh 8:26 + 5 t.; הֶחֱרִם Josh 10:28 2 masculine singular וְהַחֲרַמְתָּ֫ה 1Sam 15:18 1 singular הֶחֱרַמְתִּי 1Sam 15:20 וְהַחֲרַמְתִּ֫י Num 21:2 2 feminine singular וְהַחֲרַמְתְּ(יׅ consecutive Mic 4:13 (so ᵐ5 ᵑ9 ᵑ6 ᵑ7 RV most; ᵑ0 1 singular), see Ges«GKC:44»§ 44, R. 4; plural הֶחֱרִימוּ 1Sam 15:9; 2Chr 32:14 etc.; (1Sam 15:3 read והחרמתו ᵐ5 We Dr); Imperfect יַחֲרִם Lev 27:28 וַיַּחֲרֵם Num 21:3; Josh 10:37 suffix וַיַּחֲרִימָהּ Josh 10:1 1 plural וַנַּחֲרֵם Deut 2:34; Deut 3:6 etc.; Imperative הַחֲרֵם Deut 13:16 plural הַחֲרִימוּ Jer 51:3 suffix הַחֲרִימוּהָ Jer 50:26 Infinitive absolute הַחֲרֵם Deut 3:6 + 4 t.; construct הַחֲרִים 2Chr 20:23; Dan 11:44 suffix הַחֲרִימָם Josh 11:20 + 4 t.; — ban, devote (especially religiously, followed by objects hostile to the theocracy [see especially Exod 22:19 Hoph`al]; this involved generally their destruction; when a city was 'devoted' the inhabitants were put to death, the spoil being destroyed or not according to the gravity of the occasion [contrast Josh 6:17; Josh 6:21; 1Sam 15:3 with Deut 2:34f. Deut 3:6; Deut 3:7], compare MI17 לעשתר כמש החרמתה to Ashtar-Chemosh I devoted it, i.e. the city Nebo); —

1. most often of devoting to destruction cities of Canaanites and other neighbours of Israel, exterminating inhabitants, and destroying or appropriating their possessions:
\ \ a. Israel and her leaders subject Num 21:2; Num 21:3 (destruction according to vow), Josh 6:21 (compare חֵרֶם ליהוה vJosh 6:17 all J); in vJosh 6:18 read תַּחְמְדוּ (for ᵑ0 תַּחֲרִימוּ, see Di VB); Josh 8:26 (ᵐ5, not ᵐ5L, omit verse), Josh 10:1 (JE), Deut 2:34; Deut 3:6 (twice in verse); Deut 7:2 (twice in verse) (commanded through Moses, compare for underlying thought vDeut 7:4 vDeut 7:5 vDeut 7:6), Deut 20:17 (twice in verse) (commanded by ׳י), Josh 2:10; Josh 10:28; Josh 10:35; Josh 10:37; Josh 10:39; Josh 10:40 (divine command), Josh 11:11; Josh 11:12; Josh 11:20; Josh 11:21 (divine command vJosh 11:12 vJosh 11:20 all D), 1Sam 15:3; 1Sam 15:8; 1Sam 15:9 (twice in verse); 1Sam 15:15; 1Sam 15:18; 1Sam 15:20 (divine command v1Sam 15:3 v1Sam 15:18 v1Sam 15:20, compare v1Sam 15:11 v1Sam 15:22 v1Sam 15:23); quite secondary is simple exterminate 1Kgs 9:21; 1Chr 4:41.
\ \ b. secondary meaning destroy, exterminate, also with other nations subject: — 2Kgs 19:11 = Isa 37:11 = 2Chr 32:14; 2Chr 20:23; Jer 50:21; Jer 50:26 (both by divine command), Jer 51:3; Dan 11:44.
\ \ c. God as subject, figurative all nations and their armies Isa 34:2 the nations of Western Asia Jer 25:9 the tongue of the Egyptian sea (by drying it up) Isa 11:15 (but read perhaps החריב with ᵐ5 ᵑ6 ᵑ9 ᵑ7).
\ \ d. so also of devoting even Israelites: a city of Israel for worshipping other gods Deut 13:16 residents of Jabesh-Gilead for not joining in campaign against Benjamin Judg 21:11.
2. devote to ׳י: for sacred uses החרים ליהוה the spoil of the nations Mic 4:13 private possessions, whether a man, animal, or field Lev 27:28 (P). Hoph`al Imperfect יָחֳרַם Lev 27:29; Ezra 10:8 יָחֳרָ֑ם Exod 22:19
1. be put under the ban, devoted (to death), for worshipping other gods than ׳י Exod 22:19 (J E; earliest use of word in OT); for some other theocratic offence Lev 27:29 (P; see Di).
2. devoted, i.e. forfeited, to the temple treasures Ezra 10:8. — On חרם see especially Di (Kn) Lev 27:28 EwAntiq. 75. 78, Dr 1Sam 15:33.

The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
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