BDB2289 [H2063]

זֶה demonstrative pronoun and adverb; feminine זֹאת, once זֹאתָה, Jer 26:6 Kt (also זֹה and זוֺ, q. v.); common זוּ (q. v.): this, here (the element ז = = is widely diffused in the Semitic languages, as a demonstrative particle, often acquiring, like English that, German der, die, das, the force of a relative. Thus
\ \ a. Phoenician זֶ this (e.g. קבר ז this grave), also sometimes זן, feminine זא, comm. אז (see CIS I. i. 1:4; 1:5; 1:6; 1:12; 44:1; 88:2 etc.); Aramaic of Nineveh, Babylon, Têma, Egypt, זי as mark of the genitive [literally that of] (CIS II. i. 1, 2, 3, 4, etc., 65, 69-71, 113, 114, 141, 142, etc.), זנה this (ib. 113:22; 145 C2), feminine זא 113:15; 145 B5; Aramaic of Zinjirli ז, זן, זנה this, זי which (DHMSendsch. 56); Ethiopic ze, this, feminine , za, who (masculine), also (like זִי, and דִּי, דְּ [see below]) in common use as a mark of the genitive;
\ \ b. Arabic this, feminine , (genitive , accusative , feminine ), possessor of (literally that of . . ., i.e. one who owns), or in the Tayyite dialect, who, which: from , with lo! prefixed, this, feminine , with the pronominal element -k affixed, = this: with 'al (= the article) + a demonstrative element la prefixed, who, which (in origin = Hebrew הַלָּזֶה this, q. v.); Sabean דֿן this, feminine דֿת, דֿ who, which, feminine דֿת (PräZMG. 1872, 419, DHMZMG. 1883, 338 f., alsoEpigr. Denkm. 65);
\ \ c. Biblical Aramaic דִּי which, דֵּךְ, דִּכֵּן, דְּנָה (q. v.) this, feminine דָּא (= זֹאת), דָּךְ; Palmyrene and Nabataean די which, דנה this; ᵑ7 דְּ which, דֵּין, דֵּיכֵּי this, feminine דָּא; with הא lo! prefixed, הָדֵין, הָדָא (Syriac , contracted from ), ; Syriac who, which; Samaritan who, which, this, feminine Mandean ד who, which, דהֿ this (rare), more commonly האדין, האזין (Mand § 80, 81). Alike in Hebrew and the other dialects, the corresponding plur. is derived from a different source: Hebrew אֵלָּה, Phoenician אל, Ethiopic 'ell¥, 'ell¹, these, 'ella, who, Arabic , these, , owners of, Sabean אלן these, אל, אלי who, which, Aramaic אִלֵּין, with הא lo! prefixed, , Samaritan , Mandean עלין. Only the Arabic forms its own plural . V. further WSG 107 ff.) —

1. standing alone:
\ \ a. this one, sometimes contemptuously (especially with אֵת), Gen 2:23 לָזֹאת יִקָּרֵא אִשָּׁה כִּי מֵאִישׁ לֻקֳּחָהזּֿאֹת, Gen 5:29 זֶה יְנַחֲמֵנוּ ֗֗֗ , Gen 12:12; Gen 38:28; Exod 10:7 עַד מָתַי יִהְיֶה זֶה לָנוּ לְמוֺקֵשׁ, 1Sam 10:27 מַה יּוֺשִׁיעֵנוּ זֶה how shall this man save us ? 1Sam 16:8; 1Sam 16:9; 1Sam 21:16 that ye have brought אֶתזֶֿה this fellow to play the madman against me ? 1Sam 25:21 in vain have I kept אֶתכָּֿלאֲֿשֶׁר לָזֶה all that this fellow hath etc. 2Sam 13:17 אֶתזֹֿאת, 1Kgs 22:27 אֶתזֶֿה, Mic 5:4; Isa 66:2 as a genitive, Gen 29:27; Gen 29:28; 1Kgs 21:2 with a collective force Lev 11:4; Lev 11:9 (= Deut 14:7; Deut 14:9), vDeut 14:21 vDeut 14:29; Judg 20:16; Judg 20:17 (כָּלזֶֿה), Job 19:19 (with a plural verb). In a purely neuter sense (of an act, event, announcement, etc.) זאת is most common, as with עשׂה to do this Gen 3:14; Gen 20:5; Gen 20:6; Gen 45:19 and often, שׁמעו זאת Amos 8:4; Isa 47:8; Isa 48:1; Isa 48:16; Isa 51:21 and elsewhere; Gen 41:39; Exod 17:14; Deut 32:6; Judg 7:14; Judg 21:3 לָמָההָֽ֗֗֗יְתָה זֹאת (compare Job 1:13; Ps 118:23) 1Kgs 11:39; 2Sam 7:19; 2Kgs 3:18 +; אֵין זֹאת 1Sam 20:2b compare Amos 2:11 rarely so with אֶתֿ Josh 22:24; Jer 9:11; Ps 92:7 as an accusative of limitation, as regards this, in this, Ezek 20:27; Ezek 36:37; Job 19:26 (si vera lectio), Job 33:12 in this thou art not just; (late) אַחֲרֵי זֹאת Job 42:16; Ezra 9:10, כלזֿאת ׳א 2Chr 21:18; 2Chr 35:20 pointing forward to a following clause, Gen 42:18; Gen 43:11; Num 8:24; Num 14:35; Isa 56:2; Job 10:13 etc.; Exod 9:16; 1Sam 25:31; Isa 1:12 מִי דִקֵּשׁ זאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָֽי׃; to one introduced by כִּי 2Sam 19:22; Ps 102:19; Ps 119:50; Ps 119:56 (see also בְּזֹאת 6 b β): but זֶה also sometimes occurs similarly Exod 13:8; Prov 24:12; Job 15:17; Neh 2:2; Eccl 1:17; Eccl 2:15 גם זה הבל (so vEccl 2:19 vEccl 2:21 vEccl 2:23 +), Eccl 7:18 (twice in verse); of a concrete object, Exod 30:31; 2Kgs 4:43 מָה אֶתֵּן זֶה לִפְנֵי מֵאָה אִישׁ: in late Hebrew, Neh 13:6 בְּכָלזֶֿה during all this, 2Chr 32:9 אַחַר זֶה; pointing forwards la 2Chr 5:17 f., to כִּי Ps 56:10 je Ps 22:21. (See also below, 6 g.)
\ \ b. repeated זֶהזֶ֗֗֗ה, this . . . that, the one . . . the other or (if indefinite) another, Gen 29:27 (זֹאת), Exod 14:20 וְלֹא קָרַב זֶה אֶל זֶה, 1Kgs 3:23; 1Kgs 22:20; Isa 6:3; Isa 44:5 (3 t.), Ps 75:8 זֶה יַשְׁפִּיל וְזֶה יָרִים, Job 1:16-18; Job 21:23; Job 21:25 +.

2. In apposition to a substantive:
\ \ a. preceding it (rare) Exod 32:1; Exod 32:23 זֶה משֶׁה, Judg 5:5 (= Ps 68:9) זֶה סִינַי this Sinai, Josh 9:12 זֶה לַחְמֵנוּ this our bread, 1Kgs 14:14; 2Kgs 6:33; Isa 23:13 זֶה הָעָם, Ps 34:7; Ps 49:14; Ps 104:25 ׳זה הים גדול וג this sea there is great and broad, Ps 118:20; Song 7:8; Ezra 3:12. (compare זוּ Hab 1:11.)
\ \ b. following it: — (a) when the substantive is determined by a pronominal affix, Gen 24:8 שְׁבוּעָתִי זֹאת, this my oath, Deut 5:16 O that לְבָבָם זֶה this their heart (their present temper) might continue always! Deut 21:20; Josh 2:14; Josh 2:20 דְּבָרֵנוּ זֶה, Judg 6:14 go בְּכֹחֲךָ זֶה in this thy strength, Dan 10:17; 2Chr 24:18. (compare אֵלֶּה,
\ \ a.) Rarely when it is undetermined, 2Kgs 1:2 חֳלִי זֶה (so 2Kgs 8:8; 2Kgs 8:9), Ps 80:15 (β) with the article, הַזֶּה, הַזּאֹת, after a substantive determined also by the article, Gen 7:1 בַּדּוֺר הַזֶּה, vGen 7:13 הַיּוֺם הַזֶּה, Gen 12:7 הָאָרֶץ הַזּאֹת, Gen 15:7; Gen 17:21; Gen 17:23; Deut 4:6 הגוי הגדול הזה, and continually. Not however after a proper name, except such as are construed with the article, as הַיַּרְדֵּן הַזֶּה Gen 32:11; Deut 3:27; Deut 31:2; Josh 1:2; Josh 1:11; Josh 4:22, הַלְּבָנוֺן הַזֶּה Josh 1:4, compare Num 27:12 = Deut 32:49 (2Kgs 5:20 הַזֶּה belongs to הָאֲרַמִּי): and hardly ever (2Chr 1:10 after a noun with a pronominal affix (Josh 2:17 מִשְּׁבֻעָתֵךְ הַזֶּה the gender of הזה shews that the text is in error: see Dr§ 209 Obs.).

3. More oft. as predicate, as 1Sam 24:17 הֲקוֺלְךָ זֶה, 2Kgs 3:23 דָּם זֶה this is blood, 2Kgs 9:37 זֹאת אִיזָָֽבֶל׃, Ezek 5:5 etc.; הֲזֶה Isa 14:16, הֲזֹאת Isa 23:7; Lam 2:15 often at the beginning or close of enumerations (especially P), descriptions, injunctions, etc., as Gen 5:1 זה ספר this is the book . . ., Gen 9:12 זֹאת אוֺת הַבְּרִית, Gen 17:10; Gen 20:13 זֶה חַסְדֵּךְ אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשִׂי עִמָּדִי, Lev 6:2; Lev 6:13; Lev 6:18; Lev 7:1; Lev 7:11; Lev 33:1; etc.; זה הדבר אשׁר ֗֗֗ Exod 16:16; Exod 35:4; Exod 21:11; Jer 38:21 +, compare זה אשׁר ֗֗֗ this is what (or how) . . . Gen 6:15; Exod 29:38; Jer 33:16 זֶה לְךָ הָאוֺת Exod 3:12; 1Sam 2:34 +; at the end, Lev 7:37; Lev 11:46; Lev 13:50; Num 5:21; Num 7:17; Num 7:23 etc., Josh 19:8; Josh 19:16; Josh 19:23 etc., Isa 14:26; Isa 16:13 (זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר ֗֗֗ ), Isa 17:14; Isa 54:17; Jer 13:25; Ps 109:20; Song 5:16 (twice in verse); Job 5:27, in the latter case sometimes with the force of such (i.e. such as has been described), Job 18:21; Job 20:29 (compare אֵלֶּה Ps 73:12), Ps 24:6; Ps 48:15 such (= such a one) is God, our God, for ever (Hi De) Zeph 2:15 compare Job 14:3 אַףעַֿלזֶֿה upon one such as this (Job 14:1 vJob 14:2) dost thou open thy eyes?

4. It is attached enclitically, almost as an adverb, to certain words, especially interrogative pronouns, to impart, in a manner often not reproducible in English idiom, directness and force, bringing the question or statement made into close relation with the speaker. (Contrast from this point of view מי זה and מי הוא: see הוא 4 b. Thus
\ \ a. אֵיזֶֿה15 where, then ? Job 28:12 אֵיזֶֿה מְקוֺם בִּינָה, vJob 28:20; Job 38:19 b (see other examples below אַי 1 b, p. 32).
\ \ b. מִיזֶֿה, 1Sam 17:55; 1Sam 17:56 בֶּןמִֿיזֶֿ֖ה הָעָֽלֶם׃ the son of whom, here, is the lad ? Jer 49:19 (= Jer 50:44) ׳וּמִי זֶה רֹעֶה אֲשֶׁר וג and who (emphatic) is the shepherd that etc., Lam 3:37; Ps 24:8 Who is the king of glory ? (for which in vPs 24:10 the stronger מִי הוּא זֶה is said: so Jer 30:21; Esth 7:5), Esth 25:12. Elsewhere, the rend. Who is this . . . is admissible: Isa 63:1; Jer 46:7; Job 38:2; Job 42:3 compare מִיזֹֿאת Song 3:6; Song 6:10; Song 8:5.
\ \ c. מַהזֶֿה how, now ? Gen 27:20; Judg 18:24 וּמַהזֶּֿה תּאֹמְרוּ אֵלַי and how, now, do ye say to me . . . ? 1Kgs 21:5; 2Kgs 1:5 what, now ? (τίποτε;) 1Sam 10:11 מַהזֶּֿה הָיָה לְבֶןקִֿישׁ; עַלמַֿהאזֶּה for what ? Neh 2:4: contracted into מַזֶּה Exod 4:2. (compare Aramaic מָדֵין why ? used as a conjunction therefore, e.g. 2Sam 18:22 ᵑ6, PS2013: both formed similarly.)
\ \ d. מַהזּֿאֹת in the phrase (עֲשִׂיתֶם, עָשִׂית) מַהזּֿאֹת עָשִׂיתָ Gen 3:13; Gen 12:18; Gen 26:10; Gen 29:25; Gen 42:28; Exod 14:11; Judg 2:2; Judg 15:11 +. Either What, now, hast thou (have ye) done ? (Fl De) or what is this (that) thou hast (ye have) done ? (The Arabic grammarians dispute on the precise construction of the corresponding phrase in Arabic ; DeGen 3:13 (ed. 4), and especially FlKl Schr. i. 356 Lanep. 948.)
\ \ e. לָ˜מָּהזֶּֿה wherefore, now ? Gen 18:13; Gen 25:22; Gen 32:30; Exod 5:22; Num 11:20 + often compare Arabic feminine הַאַתָּה זֶה 2Sam 2:20 האתה זה עשׂהאל Art thou Asahel ? 1Kgs 18:7; 1Kgs 18:17, without הֲ Gen 27:24 in an indirect question Gen 27:21.
\ \ g. הִנֵּה זֶה behold, here . . . 1Kgs 19:5 (in narrative), Isa 21:9; Song 2:8; Song 2:9. compare Num 13:17 (unusual) עֲלוּ זֶה בַּנֶּגֶבּ go up here in the South.
\ \ h. עַתָּה זֶה, 1Kgs 17:24 עַתָּה זֶה יָדַעְתִּי now I know that . . ., 2Kgs 5:22 just now. Also
\ \ i. prefixed to expressions denoting a period of time: Gen 27:36 he hath supplanted me זֶה פַעֲמַיִם now two times (so Gen 43:10), Gen 31:38 now, already twenty years, vGen 31:41 (זֶהלִּֿי ֗֗֗ , Gen 45:6; Num 14:22 now ten times, Num 22:28; Num 22:32 זֶה שָׁלשׁ רְגָלִים, Deut 8:2; Deut 8:4; Josh 22:3 זֶה יָמִים רַבִּים, 2Sam 14:2 +; Zech 7:3 זֶה כַּמָּה שָׁנִים already how many years! compare Ruth 2:7.

5. In poetry, as a relative pronoun (rare: but see also זוֺ, זוּ): Ps 74:2 the hill of Zion זה שׁכנת בּוֺ wherein thou dwellest, Ps 78:54; Ps 104:8 אלמְֿקום זה to the place (stative construct Ges«GKC:130»§ 130. 3) which . . . vPs 78:26; Prov 23:22; Isa 25:9 = that which Job 15:17, those who Job 19:19 (so once, Exod 13:8, even in prose). In some of the passages cited the punctuators, by coupling זה with the preceding substantive, and separating it from what follows by a disj. accent (as הַרֶֿ™זה), appear not to have recognised its relative sense, but to have construed, 'this mountain, (which) thy right hand,' etc.

6. With prefixes (in special senses): —
\ \ a. בָּזֶה15 in this (place), here, Gen 38:21; Gen 38:22; Exod 24:14; Num 23:1 (twice in verse); 1Sam 1:26; 1Sam 9:11 +; of time, then, Esth 2:13. Once בַּזֶה 1Sam 21:10.
\ \ b. בְּזֹאת (a) with this = on these conditions, Gen 34:15; Gen 34:22; 1Sam 11:2; Isa 27:9 = herewith, thus provided Lev 16:3. (β) by or through this (especially with יָדַע), Gen 42:15; Gen 42:33; Exod 7:17; Num 16:28; Josh 3:10; Ps 41:12 so בָּזֹאת Mal 3:10. (γ) in spite of this, Lev 26:27; Ps 27:3, for which the fuller בְּכָלזֹֿאת occurs, Isa 5:25; Isa 9:11; Isa 9:16; Isa 9:20; Isa 10:4; Ps 78:32; Jer 3:10; Hos 7:10. (δ) בָּזֹאת for this cause (late style) 1Chr 27:24; 2Chr 19:2 in this matter 2Chr 20:17
\ \ c. כָּזֶה
\ \ \ (a) Gen 41:38 הֲנִמְצָא כָזֶה אִישׁ אשׁר ֗֗֗ , Isa 56:12; Isa 58:5; Jer 5:9 גּוֺי אֲשֶׁר כָּזֶה (so vJer 5:29; Jer 9:8). (β) כָּזֹה וְכָזֶה thus and thus, Judg 18:4; 2Sam 11:25; 1Kgs 14:5.
\ \ d. כְּזֹאת the like of this = as follows, Gen 45:23 כָּזֹאת the like of this = things such as these Judg 13:23 (with השׁמיע), Judg 15:7; Judg 19:30 לא נראתה כָּזֹאת, 1Sam 4:7 (compare Jer 2:10; 2Chr 30:26), 2Sam 14:13 (with חשׁב), Isa 66:8 (with שׁמע), Ezra 7:27 = accordingly, to that effect (with דִּבֶּר) 2Chr 34:22 = in like manner Judg 8:8 = thus (as has been described) 1Kgs 7:37; 1Chr 29:14; 2Chr 31:20; 2Chr 32:15: כָּזֹאת וְכָזֹאת thus and thus Josh 7:20; 2Sam 17:15 (twice in verse); 2Kgs 5:4; 2Kgs 9:12.
\ \ e. מִזֶּה from here, hence Gen 37:17; Gen 42:15; Gen 50:25; Exod 11:1 (twice in verse); Exod 13:3; Deut 9:12 + often: מִזֶּהמִ֗֗֗זֶּה on one side . . . on the other side Exod 17:12 מזה אחד ומזה אחד, Exod 25:19; Exod 26:13; Exod 32:15 מזה ומזה הם כתובים, Num 22:24; 1Sam 14:4; 1Kgs 10:19; 1Kgs 10:20; Zech 5:3 +; מִוֶּה וּמִזֶּה לְ on one side and on the other side of . . . Exod 38:15; Josh 8:33; Ezek 45:7; Ezek 48:21. feminine עַל זֶה on this account (rare), Lam 5:17 (pointing forwards), Esth 6:3. So עַל זֹאת Amos 8:8; Mic 1:8; Jer 2:12 (Job 17:8) Jer 4:8; Jer 4:28; Ps 32:6 in late prose Ezra 8:23; Ezra 9:15; Ezra 10:2; Neh 13:14; 2Chr 16:9; 2Chr 16:10; 2Chr 29:9; 2Chr 32:20.
\ \ g. עִם זֶה in spite of this Neh 5:18. — On אֵי זֶה which ? אֵי מִזֶּה whence ? אֵי לָזֹאת how ? see below אַי 2; and on הַלָּז, הַלָּזֶה, הַלֵּזוּ.

Note.זֶה in 1Sam 17:34 (in many editions) is a typographical error (not a Kt) of Jacob b. Chayim's Rabbinic Bible of 1525 for שׂה sheep, which has been perpetuated hence in other subsequent editions. The reading of MSS. and of the best ancient editions is שֶׂה (compare de RossiVar. Lect. ii. 151).


The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
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