BDB1688 [H1571]

גַּם768 adverb denoting addition, also, moreover, yea (Moabite id., also Zinjirli (Lzb250 Cooke166); probably akin to √ ; compare (accusative) in a mass, altogether) —

1. also, moreover, emphasizing sometimes the thought of an entire sentence, but more usually the word immediately following, as Gen 3:6 וַתִּתֵּן גַּם לְאִישָׁהּ and gave also to her husband, vGen 3:27 and take also of the tree of life, Gen 7:3; Gen 19:21; Gen 24:19; Gen 26:21; Gen 29:27; Gen 30:15; Gen 32:21 (גַּם הִגֵּה ֗֗֗ : so Esth 7:9) Gen 48:11; Exod 8:28; Exod 12:32b Deut 1:37; 1Sam 28:20; 2Sam 11:12; 2Kgs 9:27; Isa 7:13 +. Often before pronouns, Gen 4:4 וְהֶבֶל הֵבִיא גַם הוּא and Abel, he also brought, Gen 20:5 וְהִיאגַֿםהִֿוא (so only here) and she herself also, vGen 20:6; Gen 27:31 וַיַּעַשׂ גַּם הוּא, Gen 30:8; Deut 3:20; Judg 3:31; Judg 6:35; Judg 9:19; 1Sam 19:20-24; Jer 12:6; Jer 48:26 etc. (compare MI6 ויאמר גם הא): especially in genealogies of J (BuUrg. 220) Gen 4:22; Gen 4:26; Gen 10:21; Gen 19:38; Gen 22:20; Gen 22:24 compare Judg 8:31. גַּם followed by pronoun also begins a sentence with emphasis in an elevated style, thou (they) also, Isa 14:10; Jer 12:6 (twice in verse); Jer 48:7; Ezek 16:52; Nah 3:11 (twice in verse). After a pronoun in an oblique case (Ges«GKC:135»§ 135, 2) Gen 27:34; 1Sam 19:23; 2Sam 17:5; Jer 25:14; Jer 27:7 +. וְגַם and also (more often than גַּם alone attaching a sentence) Gen 6:4; Gen 14:16; Gen 15:14; Gen 17:16; Gen 20:12; Gen 24:14; Gen 24:46; Gen 30:6; Gen 37:7; Gen 38:24; Gen 42:28; Exod 2:19; Exod 3:9; Exod 4:14; Josh 7:11 (5 t.) 1Sam 4:17; 1Kgs 21:19 + often; with a negative = neither Exod 5:2; Exod 34:3 and elsewhere — גַּם ֗֗֗ גַּם (like et ... et) both ... and Gen 44:16; Gen 47:3; Gen 47:19; Num 18:3; Jer 51:12; Ps 49:3 +: גַּם ֗֗֗ גַּם ֗֗֗ גַּם Gen 24:25; Judg 8:22; Eccl 9:6: with a negative neither ... nor Num 23:25; 1Sam 20:27; 1Kgs 3:26, and (3 t.) Gen 43:8; Exod 4:10; 1Sam 28:6. So (but seldom) גַּםוְ֗֗֗גַם Gen 24:44; Gen 1:26; Gen 12:14; Gen 26:25: with negative 1Sam 21:9. —
N.B. In poetry independence and emphasis is sometimes given by גַּם to a new idea, where in English we should be satisfied with and: Ps 107:5; Ps 137:1; Job 24:19; Song 7:14; Lam 4:15.
2. with stress on a particular word, even, Exod 4:9; Num 22:33 גַּם אוֺתְךָ even thee I had slain, and kept her alive, 2Sam 17:10; Jer 2:33; Ps 132:12; Prov 14:13 even in laughter the heart is sorrowful, vProv 14:20; Prov 17:28; Prov 20:11; Ruth 2:15; Neh 3:35 and so often after כִּי, Deut 12:31 for even their sons they burn in the fire to their gods, 1Sam 22:17; Isa 26:12; Jer 6:11; Jer 12:6; Jer 14:5; Hos 9:12 כִּיגַֿםאֿוֺי לָהֶם for even woe is it to them when I depart from them; הֲגַם Gen 16:13; 1Sam 10:11; 1Sam 10:12 = 1Sam 19:24; 1Kgs 17:20; Ps 78:20; Job 41:1; Esth 7:8. Other cases: — 1Sam 24:12 רְאֵה גַּם רְאֵה see, yea see ! (but HupQu. Job vi. גַּם רָאֹה: compare below) Ps 118:11; Job 2:10 גַּם אֶתהַֿטּוֺב נְקַבֵּל shall we receive good (emphatic) from God and not evil ? Job 21:7 interposed once between a substantive and adjective Gen 20:4 gentemne etiam justam interficies? emphasizing כֹּל, Deut 28:61; Judg 9:49b 1Sam 22:7 גַּםֿ לְכֻלְּכֶם to all (emphatic) of you will he give ...? 2Sam 19:31 גַּם אֶתהַֿכֹּל יִקָּ֑ח yea, the whole let him take! Isa 26:12 אֶחָד 2Sam 17:12b and we will not leave גַּם אֶחָד ֗֗֗ even one (similarly v2Sam 17:13 b), Ps 14:3 (= Ps 53:4) אֵין גַּם אֶחָד; an infinitive or cognate accusative attached to a verb, Gen 31:15; Gen 46:4; Num 11:15; Num 16:13; 1Sam 1:6. גַּם שְׁנֵיהֶם literally even both i.e. the one as well as the other (German alle beide) is said idiomatically, Gen 27:45 (שְׁנֵיכֶם), Deut 22:22; Deut 23:19; 1Sam 25:43 (שְׁתֵּיהֶן), Prov 17:15; Prov 20:10; Prov 20:12; Ruth 1:5.
3. introducing a climax, yea, especially in a rhetorical style, Gen 27:33; Deut 23:3; Deut 23:4; Judg 5:4 (twice in verse); Isa 13:3; Isa 14:8; Isa 43:13 yea, from to-day I am the same, Isa 44:12 גַּם רָעֵב yea, he is hungry, and has no strength, Isa 47:3; Isa 48:8 (3 t. in verse); Isa 57:7; Jer 46:16; Jer 48:2; Jer 51:44; Hos 7:9; Ps 41:10; Ps 84:7; Ps 139:12; Isa 66:8 כִּיחָֿ֫לָה גַּםיָָֽֿלְדָה, צִיּוֺן אֶתבָּֿנֶיהָ, Jer 5:28; Jer 12:2; Ezek 24:5; Job 21:7; Song 8:1: emphasizing an extreme, or aggravated, case, yea, even, Isa 49:15 yea, these may forgot, Jer 8:17 yea, the stork knoweth, etc., Isa 23:12 גַּם שָׁם even there no rest shall be for thee (so Ps 139:10), Isa 49:25; Isa 57:6; Jer 23:11b; Mal 3:15; Ps 84:4.
4. expressing correspondence, especially in the matter of retribution (the גַּם correlativum), so frequently גַּם אֲנִי, גַּם אָנֹכִי I also (on my part): — Gen 20:6 I also [as well as thyself] know that thou hast done this innocently, Josh 24:18; Judg 2:21; 1Sam 1:28 (compare Dr) 1Sam 28:22 גַּם אַתָּה thou also (as I have done v1Sam 28:21), 2Sam 12:13 ׳י also [responding to thy confession] hath removed thy sin, 2Kgs 2:3; 2Kgs 2:5; Isa 31:2; Isa 66:3-4 (גם ֗֗֗ גם, emphasizing the action of both parties), Jer 2:36; Jer 4:12 now will I also [in correspondence with their deeds] speak judgments with them, Jer 7:11; Jer 51:49 (גם ֗֗֗ גם), Ezek 5:8; Ezek 5:11; Ezek 16:43 (וְגַם = therefore also), Ezek 23:35; Hos 4:6 because thou hast forgotten the direction of thy God, I also (on my part) will forget thy children, Ps 52:7 (thou lovest evil, etc.) גַּם אֵל יִתָּצְךָ God also (on his part) will pluck thee up, Ps 71:22; Ps 133:1; Prov 1:26; Job 7:11; Job 12:3; Job 16:4 so וְגַם Judg 2:3; Amos 4:6; Amos 4:7; Mic 6:13; Mal 2:9. In the apodosis (uncommon): Gen 13:16 if a man could number the dust of the earth, גַּם זַרְעֲךָ יִמָּנֶה thy seed also should be numbered, Jer 31:36; Jer 31:37; Jer 33:21; Jer 33:26; Zech 8:6. The correspondence is sometimes of the nature of a climax: Gen 27:33; Gen 30:8 I have wrestled, גַּם יָכֹלְתִּי (compare 1Kgs 22:22 וְגַם תּוּכָ֔ל, Jer 50:24), Isa 66:8.
5. connecting two ideas which express (or imply) a contradiction, גַּם acquires sometimes an adversative force (compare אַף 1 end), yet, but, though: Ps 95:9 they tried me, but also (Che) saw my work (namely of judgment), Ps 129:2; Jer 6:15 = Jer 8:12; Ezek 20:23; Eccl 4:8; Eccl 4:16; Eccl 5:18; Neh 6:1. So וְגַם Ezek 16:28; Ezek 20:15; Eccl 3:13; Eccl 6:7; Neh 5:8.
6. גַּם כִּי (with imperfect) yea, when Lam 3:8, even when Prov 22:6 yea though (stating an imagined case) Isa 1:15; Hos 8:10; Hos 9:16; Ps 23:4 (so גַּם אִם Eccl 8:17); also (is it) that Ruth 2:21 (see כִּי 1 d). כִּי גַם = for even (see above 2); = though even, although (conceding a fact) Eccl 4:14 (see De) Eccl 8:12.


The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
License: Public domain document; formatting developed for use in https://marvel.bible by Eliran Wong.
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