Oven - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Oven[ 1,,G2823, klibanos ]
is mentioned in Matthew 6:30; Luke 12:28. The form of oven" commonly in use in the east indicates the kind in use as mentioned in Scripture. A hole is sunk in the ground about 3 feet deep and somewhat less in diameter. The walls are plastered with cement. A fire is kindled inside, the fuel being grass, or dry twigs, which heat the oven rapidly and blacken it with smoke and soot (See Lamentations 5:10). When sufficiently heated the surface is wiped, and the dough is molded into broad thin loaves, placed one at a time on the wall of the "oven" to fit its concave inner circle. The baking takes a few seconds. Such ovens are usually outside the house, and often the same "oven" serves for several families (Leviticus 26:26). An "oven" of this sort is doubtless referred to in Exodus 8:3 (See Hastings, Bib. Dic.).