New - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words


[ 1,,G2537, kainos ]
denotes new," of that which is unaccustomed or unused, not "new" in time, recent, but "new" as to form or quality, of different nature from what is contrasted as old. "'The new tongues,' kainos, of Mark 16:17 are the 'other tongues,' heteros, of Acts 2:4. These languages, however, were 'new' and 'different,' not in the sense that they had never been heard before, or that they were new to the hearers, for it is plain from Acts 2:8 that this is not the case; they were new languages to the speakers, different from those in which they were accustomed to speak.

"The new things that the Gospel brings for present obedience and realization are: a new covenant, Matthew 26:28 in some texts; a new commandment, John 13:34; a new creative act, Galatians 6:15; a new creation, 2 Corinthians 5:17; a new man, i.e., a new character of manhood, spiritual and moral, after the pattern of Christ, Ephesians 4:24; a new man, i.e., 'the Church which is His (Christ's) body,' Ephesians 2:15.

"The new things that are to be received and enjoyed hereafter are: a new name, the believer's, Revelation 2:17; a new name, the Lord's, Revelation 3:12; a new song, Revelation 5:9; a new Heaven and a new Earth, Revelation 21:1; the new Jerusalem, Revelation 3:12; Revelation 21:2; 'And He that sitteth on the Throne said, Behold, I make all things new,' Revelation 21:5" * [* From Notes on Galations, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 337,338.]

Kainos is translated "fresh" in the RV of Matthew 9:17; Mark 2:22 (in the best texts) and Luke 5:38, of wineskins. Cp. kainotes, "newness" (below)

[ 2,,G3501, neos ]
signifies "new" in respect of time, that which is recent; it is used of the young, and so translated, especially the comparative degree "younger;" accordingly what is neos may be a reproduction of the old in quality or character. Neos and kainos are sometimes used of the same thing, but there is a difference, as already indicated. Thus the "new man" in Ephesians 2:15 (kainos) is "new" in differing in character; so in Ephesians 4:24 (See No. 1); but the "new man" in Colossians 3:10 (neos) stresses the fact of the believer's "new" experience, recently begun, and still proceeding. "The old man in him ... dates as far back as Adam; a new man has been born, who therefore is fitly so called" [i.e., neos], Trench, Syn. lx. The "New" Covenant in Hebrews 12:24 is "new" (neos) compared with the Mosaic, nearly fifteen hundred years before; it is "new" (kainos) compared with the Mosaic, which is old in character, ineffective, Hebrews 8:8, Hebrews 8:13; Hebrews 9:15.

The "new" wine of Matthew 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37-Luke 5:39, is neos, as being of recent production; the "new" wine of the kingdom, Matthew 26:29; Mark 14:25, is kainos, since it will be of a different character from that of this world. The rendering "new" (neos) is elsewhere used metaphorically in 1 Corinthians 5:7, "a new lump." See YOUNG, YOUNGER.

[ 3,,G4732, prosphatos ]
originally signifying "freshly slain," acquired the general sense of "new," as applied to flowers, oil, misfortune, etc. It is used in Hebrews 10:20 of the "living way" which Christ "dedicated for us ... through the veil ... His flesh" (which stands for His expiatory death by the offering of His body, Hebrews 10:10). In the Sept., Numbers 6:3; Deuteronomy 32:17; Psalms 81:9; Ecclesiastes 1:9. Cp. the adverb prosphatos "lately, recently," Acts 18:2.

Note: In Matthew 9:16; Mark 2:21, AV, agnaphos is translated "new" (RV, "undressed"). Moulton and Milligan give an instance in the papyri of its use in respect of a "new white shirt." See UNDRESSED.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words