Governor - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Governor[ A-1,Noun,G2232, hegemon ]
is a term used
(a) for rulers" generally, Mark 13:9; 1 Peter 2:14; translated "princes" (i.e., leaders) in Matthew 2:6;
(b) for the Roman procurators, referring, in the Gospels to Pontius Pilate, e.g., Matthew 27:2; Luke 20:20 (so designated by Tacitus, Annals, XV. 44); to Felix, Acts 23:26. Technically the procurator was a financial official under a proconsul or propretor, for collecting the imperial revenues, but entrusted also with magisterial powers for decisions of questions relative to the revenues. In certain provinces, of which Judea was one (the procurator of which was dependent on the legate of Syria), he was the general administrator and supreme judge, with sole power of life and death. Such a governor was a person of high social standing. Felix, however, was an ex-slave, a freedman, and his appointment to Judea could not but be regarded by the Jews as an insult to the nation. The headquarters of the governor of Judea was Caesarea, which was made a garrison town. See PRINCE, RULER. For anthupatos, "a proconsul," See PROCONSUL.
[ A-2,Noun,G1481, ethnarches ]
"an ethnarch," lit. "a ruler of a nation" (ethnos, "a people," arche, "rule"), is translated "governor" in 2 Corinthians 11:32; it describes normally the ruler of a nation possessed of separate laws and customs among those of a different race. Eventually it denoted a ruler of a province, superior to a tetrarch, but inferior to a king (e.g., Aretas).
[ A-3,Noun,G3623, oikonomos ]
lit., "one who rules a house" (oikos, "a house," nomos, "a law"), Galatians 4:2, denotes a superior servant responsible for the family housekeeping, the direction of other servants, and the care of the children under age. See CHAMBERLAIN, STEWARD.
[ A-4,Noun,G755, architriklinos ]
from arche, "rule," and triklinos, "a room with three couches," denotes "the ruler of a feast," John 2:8, RV (AV, "the governor of the feast"), a man appointed to See that the table and couches were duly placed and the courses arranged, and to taste the food and wine.
[ B-1,Verb,G2233, hegeomai ]
akin to A, No. 1, is used in the present participle to denote "a governor," lit., "(one) governing," Matthew 2:6; Acts 7:10.
[ B-2,Verb,G2230, hegemoneuo ]
to be a hegemon, "to lead the way," came to signify to be "a governor of a province;" it is used of Quirinius, governor of Syria, Luke 2:2, RV (for the circumstances See under ENROLLMENT); of Pontius Pilate, governor of Judea, Luke 3:1. In the first clause of this verse the noun hegemonia, "a rule of sovereignty," is translated "reign;" Eng., "hegemony."
Note. In James 3:4, the verb euthuno, "to make or guide straight," is used in the present participle, as a noun, denoting the "steersman" (RV) or pilot of a vessel, AV, "governor."