Forbear, Forbearance - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Forbear, Forbearance

[ A-1,Verb,G430, anecho ]
to hold up" (ana, "up," echo, "to have or hold"), is used in the Middle Voice in the NT, signifying "to bear with, endure;" it is rendered "forbearing (one another)" in Ephesians 4:2; Colossians 3:13. See BEAR. Cp. B, No. 1, below.

[ A-2,Verb,G447, aniemi ]
lit., "to send up or back" (ana, "up," hiemi, "to send"), hence, "to relax, loosen," or, metaphorically, "to desist from," is translated "forbearing" (threatening) in Ephesians 6:9 ("giving up your threatening," T.K. Abbott). See LEAVE, LOOSE.

[ A-3,Verb,G5339, pheidomai ]
"to spare" (its usual meaning), "to refrain from doing something," is rendered "I forbear" in 2 Corinthians 12:6. See SPARE.

[ A-4,Verb,G4722, stego ]
properly denotes "to protect by covering;" then, "to conceal;" then, by covering, "to bear up under;" it is translated "forbear" in 1 Thessalonians 3:1, 1 Thessalonians 3:5. See BEAR.

Note: In 1 Corinthians 9:6, the verb ergazomai, "to work," is used in the present infinitive, with a; negative, and translated "to forbear working" (lit., "not working").

[ B-1,Noun,G463, anoche ]
"a holding back" (akin to A, No. 1), denotes "forbearance," a delay of punishment, Romans 2:4; Romans 3:25, in both places of God's "forbearance" with men; in the latter passage His "forbearance" is the ground, not of His forgiveness, but of His pretermission of sins, His withholding punishment. In Romans 2:4 it represents a suspense of wrath which must eventually be exercised unless the sinner accepts God's conditions; in Romans 3:25 it is connected with the passing over of sins in times past, previous to the atoning work of Christ.

Note: Cp. the noun epieikeia, Acts 24:4, "clemency;" 2 Corinthians 10:1, "gentleness." Synonymous with this are makrothumia, "longsuffering," and hupomone, "patience" (See Colossians 1:11). Anoche and makrothumia are used together in Romans 2:4. See also Ephesians 4:2 (where A, No. 1, is used in this combination). Trench (Syn.) and Abbott-Smith (Lex.) state that huponone expresses patience with regard to adverse things, makrothumia patience with regard to antagonistic persons. It must be observed, however, that in Hebrews 6:15 the verb makrothumeo is used of Abraham's patience under the pressure of trying circumstances (cp. also James 5:7-James 5:8). Makrothumia and hupomone are often found together, e.g., 2 Corinthians 6:4, 2 Corinthians 6:6; 2 Timothy 3:10.

"Longsuffering is that quality of self-restraint in the face of provocation which does not hastily retaliate or promptly punish; it is the opposite of anger and is associated with mercy, and is used of God, Exodus 34:6, Sept., Romans 2:4; 1 Peter 3:20. Patience is the quality that does not surrender to circumstances or succumb under trial; it is the opposite of despondency and is associated with hope, in 1 Thessalonians 1:3; it is not used of God." * [* From Notes on Thessalonians, by Hogg and Vine, pp. 183,184.]

[ C-1,Adjective,G420, anexikakos ]
denotes "patiently forbearing evil," lit., "patient of wrong," (from anecho, A, No. 1 and kakos, "evil"), "enduring;" it is rendered "forbearing" in 2 Timothy 2:24.

[ C-2,Adjective,G1933, epieikes ]
an adjective (from epi, used intensively, and eikos, "reasonable"), is used as a noun with the article in Philippians 4:5, and translated "forbearance" in the RV; AV, "moderation," RV, marg., "gentleness," "sweet reasonableness" (Matthew Arnold). See GENTLE.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words