Excel, Excellency, Excellent - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Excel, Excellency, Excellent

[ A-1,Verb,G5235, huperballo ]
lit., to throw over:" See EXCEED, No. 1.

[ A-2,Verb,G4052, perisseuo ]
"to be over and above," is rendered "abound" in 1 Corinthians 14:12, RV, for AV, "excel." See ABUNDANCE, B, No. 1, and EXCEED, A, No. 2.

[ A-3,Verb,G5242, huperecho ]
lit., "to have over" (huper, "over," echo, "to have"), is translated "excellency" in Philippians 3:8, "the surpassingness" (Moule); the phrase could be translated "the surpassing thing, which consists in the knowledge of Christ Jesus," and this is the probable meaning. This verb is used three times in Philippians, here and in Philippians 2:3; Philippians 4:7. See also Romans 13:1; 1 Peter 2:13. See BETTER, No. 4.

[ A-4,Verb,G1308, diaphero ]
"to differ," is used in the neuter plural of the present participle with the article, in Philippians 1:10, "the things that are excellent" (marg., "the things that differ"), lit., "the excellent things." See DIFFER.

[ B-1,Noun,G5236, huperbole ]
lit., "a throwing beyond," hence, "a surpassing, an excellence," is translated "excellency" in 2 Corinthians 4:7, AV; RV, "exceeding greatness." It always betokens pre-eminence. It is used with kata, "according to," in the phrase kath' huperbolen, signifying "beyond measure, exceedingly," Romans 7:13, "exceeding sinful;" in 2 Corinthians 1:8, RV, "exceedingly," for AV, "out of measure;" in Galatians 1:13, "beyond measure;" in 1 Corinthians 12:31, "more excellent." In 2 Corinthians 4:17, there is an expanded phrase kath' huperbolen eis huperbolen, lit., "according to a surpassing unto a surpassing," RV, "more and more exceedingly," which corrects the AV, "a far more exceedingly;" the phrase refers to "worketh," showing the surpassing degree of its operation, and not to the noun "weight" (nor does it qualify, "eternal"). In 2 Corinthians 12:7, the RV has "exceeding greatness," the AV, "abundance." See ABUNDANCE.

[ B-2,Noun,G5247, huperoche ]
akin to A, No. 3, strictly speaking, "the act of overhanging" (huper, and echo, "to hold") or "the thing which overhangs," hence, "superiority, preeminence," is translated "excellency (of speech)" in 1 Corinthians 2:1; elsewhere, in 1 Timothy 2:2, RV, "high place," for AV, "authority." See AUTHORITY, PLACE.

Note: In 1 Peter 2:9 RV renders arete (virtue) "excellencies."

[ C-1,Adjective,G3169, megaloprepes ]
signifies "magnificent, majestic, that which is becoming to a great man" (from megas, "great," and prepo, "to be fitting or becoming"), in 2 Peter 1:17, "excellent."

[ C-2,Adjective,G1313, diaphoroteros ]
comparative degree of diaphoros, "excellent," akin to A, No. 4, is used twice, in Hebrews 1:4, "more excellent (name)," and Hebrews 8:6, "more excellent (ministry)." For the positive degree See Romans 12:6; Hebrews 9:10. See under DIFFER.

[ C-3,Adjective,G4119, pleion ]
"more, greater," the comparative degree of polus, "much," is translated "more excellent" in Hebrews 11:4, of Abel's sacrifice; pleion is used sometimes of that which is superior by reason of inward worth, cp. Hebrews 3:3, "more (honor);" in Matthew 6:25, of the life in comparison with meat.

[ C-4,Adjective,G2903, kratistos ]
"mightiest, noblest, best," the superlative degree of kratus, "strong" (cp. kratos, "strength"), is used as a title of honor and respect, "most excellent," Luke 1:3 (Theophilus was quite possibly a man of high rank); Acts 23:26; Acts 24:3; Acts 26:25, RV, for AV, "most noble."

Note: The phrase kath' huperbolen (for which See B, No. 1) is translated "more excellent" in 1 Corinthians 12:31.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words