Live in Luxury and Pleasure - Trench's New Testament Synonyms
Live in Luxury and Pleasurestreniao (G4763) Live in Luxury and Pleasure
Although streniao, tryphao, and spatalao each refer to excess, wanton, dissolute, self-indulgent, prodigal living, they have different shades of meaning.
Streniao occurs only twice in the New Testament (Rev. 18:7, 9); strenos (G4764) occurs once (Rev. 18:3; cf. 2 Kings 19:28), as does the compound katastreniao (G2691; 1 Tim. 5:11). Streniao originated in the New or Middle Comedy and was used by Lycophron, Sophilus, and Antiphanes, but was rejected by the Greek purists. Phrynichus claimed that only a madman would use it if he could use tryphan instead. Although tryphan was preferred in Greek usage, it appears only once in the New Testament (James 5:5), as does entryphan. Tryphan and tryphe belong to the best age and to the most classical writers in the language. Closer examination will show that the words have different meanings and that frequently one could not be used in place of the other. Strenian correctly refers to the insolence of wealth, to the wantonness and petulance that result from being full from eating. It does not designate luxurious effeminacy, and in fact Pape relates strenos to the Latin strenuus (vigorous). Strenosalways implies strength or vigor, such as that displayed by the inhabitants of Sodom (Gen. 19:4-9).
Tryphe and tryphan, however, do refer to effeminacy or brokenness of spirit through self-indulgence. Thus tryphe is related to chlide, polyteleia, malakia, and rhathymia. According to Clement of Alexandria: "For what else is he tryphe than pleasurable gluttony and superfluous excess for the enjoyment of relaxation?" When tryphe is used with hybris, and when tryphan is used with hybrizein, they mean "insolence." As Menander said: "They were arrogant where excessive tryphe occurred." Occasionally tryphe has a good sense and is used to refer to the triumph and exultation of the saints of God.In Genesis 2:15 the garden of Eden is referred to as "a paradise of tes tryphes."
Spatalan is more closely related to tryphan than to strenian, though it inherently refers to wastefulness. Thus Hottinger said: "Tryphan concerns delights and exquisite pleasure; spatalan concerns extravagance and prodigality." Tittmann wrote: "Tryphan is rather the softness of a luxurious life; spatalan denotes more wantonness and prodigality." Theile took them in reverse order: "They are compared as preceding and subsequent: to live with excess and then to squander or to live luxuriously and then to live wantonly."
If we have accurately understood the differences between these words, then spatalan would correctly be applied to the prodigal son, who wasted his substance in riotous living (Luke 15:13), tryphan to the rich man who fared sumptuously every day (Luke 16:19), and strenian to Jeshurun, who grew fat and kicked (Deut. 32:15).