Stone (Noun, Verb, and Adjective) - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Stone (Noun, Verb, and Adjective)

[ A-1,Noun,G3037, lithos ]
is used
(I) literally, of
(a) the stones" of the ground, e.g., Matthew 4:3, Matthew 4:6; Matthew 7:9;
(b) "tombstones," e.g., Matthew 27:60, Matthew 27:66;
(c) "building stones," e.g., Matthew 21:42;
(d) "a millstone," Luke 17:2; cp. Revelation 18:21 (See MILLSTONE);
(e) the "tables (or tablets)" of the Law, 2 Corinthians 3:7;
(f) "idol images," Acts 17:29;
(g) the "treasures" of commercial Babylon, Revelation 18:12, Revelation 18:16; (II) metaphorically, of
(a) Christ, Romans 9:33; 1 Peter 2:4, 1 Peter 2:6, 1 Peter 2:8;
(b) believers, 1 Peter 2:5;
(c) spiritual edification by scriptural teaching, 1 Corinthians 3:12;
(d) the adornment of the foundations of the wall of the spiritual and heavenly Jerusalem, Revelation 21:19;
(e) the adornment of the seven angels in Revelation 15:6, RV (so the best texts; some have linon, "linen," AV);
(f) the adornment of religious Babylon, Revelation 17:4; (III) figuratively, of Christ, Revelation 4:3; Revelation 21:11, where "light" stands for "Light-giver" (phoster).

[ A-2,Noun,G5586, psephos ]
"a smooth stone, a pebble," worn smooth as by water, or polished (akin to psao, "to rub"), denotes
(a) by metonymy, a vote (from the use of "pebbles" for this purpose; cp. psephizo, "to count"), Acts 26:10, RV (AV, "voice");
(b) a (white) "stone" to be given to the overcomer in the church at Pergamum, Revelation 2:17 (twice); a white "stone" was often used in the social life and judicial customs of the ancients; festal days were noted by a white "stone," days of calamity by a black; in the courts a white "stone" indicated acquittal, a black condemnation. A host's appreciation of a special guest was indicated by a white "stone" with the name or a message written on it; this is probably the allusion here.

Note: In John 1:42 petros stands for the proper name, Peter, as the RV (AV, "a stone;" marg., "Peter"); petros denotes "a piece of a rock, a detached stone or boulder," in contrast to petra, "a mass of rock." See ROCK.

[ B-1,Verb,G3036, lithoboleo ]
"to pelt with stones" (A, No. 1, and ballo, "to throw"), "to stone to death," occurs in Matthew 21:35; Matthew 23:37; Luke 13:34 (John 8:5 in some mss.: See No. 2); Acts 7:58-Acts 7:59; Acts 14:5; Hebrews 12:20.

[ B-2,Verb,G3034, lithazo ]
"to stone," virtually equivalent to No. 1, but not stressing the casting, occurs in John 8:5 (in the most authentic mss.); John 10:31-John 10:33; John 11:8; Acts 5:26; Acts 14:19; 2 Corinthians 11:25; Hebrews 11:37.

[ B-3,Verb,G2642, katalithazo ]
an intensive form of No. 2, "to cast stones at," occurs in Luke 20:6.

[ C-1,Adjective,G3035, lithinos ]
"of stone" (akin to A, No. 1), occurs in John 2:6; 2 Corinthians 3:3; Revelation 9:20.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words