Master (Noun and Verb) - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Master (Noun and Verb)

[ A-1,Noun,G1320, didaskalos ]
a teacher" (from didasko, "to teach"), is frequently rendered "Master" in the four Gospels, as a title of address to Christ, e.g., Matthew 8:19; Mark 4:38 (there are more instances in Luke than in the other Gospels); John 1:38, where it interprets "Rabbi;" John 20:16, where it interprets "Rabboni." It is used by Christ of Himself in Matthew 23:8 (See No. 6) and John 13:13-John 13:14; by others concerning Him, Matthew 17:24; Matthew 26:18; Mark 5:35; Mark 14:14; Luke 8:49; Luke 22:11; John 11:28. In John 3:10, the Lord uses it in addressing Nicodemus, RV, "the teacher" (AV, "a master"), where the article does not specify a particular "teacher," but designates the member of a class; for the class See Luke 2:46, "the doctors" (RV, marg., "teachers"). It is used of the relation of a disciple to his "master," in Matthew 10:24-Matthew 10:25; Luke 6:40. It is not translated "masters" in the rest of the NT, save in the AV of James 3:1 "(be not many) masters," where obviously the RV "teachers" is the meaning. See TEACHER.

[ A-2,Noun,G2962, kurios ]
"a lord, one who exercises power," is translated "masters" in Matthew 6:24; Matthew 15:27; Mark 13:35; Luke 16:13; Acts 16:16, Acts 16:19; Romans 14:4, AV (RV, "Lord"); Ephesians 6:5, Ephesians 6:9 (twice), the 2nd time of Christ; so in Colossians 3:22; Colossians 4:1. See LORD.

[ A-3,Noun,G1203, despotes ]
one who has "absolute ownership and uncontrolled power," is translated "masters" in 1 Timothy 6:1-2; Titus 2:9; 1 Peter 2:18; of Christ, 2 Timothy 2:21; 2 Peter 2:1, RV (for AV, "Lord"); in Jude 1:4, RV, it is applied to Christ "(our only) Master (and Lord, Jesus Christ)," AV "(the only) Lord (God);" in Revelation 6:10, RV, in an address to God, "O Master" (AV, "O Lord"). It is rendered "Lord" in Luke 2:29; Acts 4:24. See LORD.

Note: For "master of the house," See GOODMAN.

[ A-4,Noun,G4461, rabbei ]
was an Aramaic word signifying "my master," a title of respectful address to Jewish teachers.

"The Aramaic word rabbei, transliterated into Greek, is explicitly recognized as the common form of address to Christ, Matthew 26:25 (cp., however, Matthew 26:22, kurios); Matthew 26:49; Mark 9:5, but Matthew 17:4, kurios" (Dalman, The Words of Jesus).

In the following the RV has "Rabbi" for AV "Master;" Matthew 26:25, Matthew 26:49; Mark 9:5; Mark 11:21; Mark 14:45; John 4:31; John 9:2; John 11:8. In other passages the AV has "Rabbi," Matthew 23:7-Matthew 23:8; John 1:38, John 1:49; John 3:2, John 3:26; John 6:25.

Note: The form Rabbounei (Rabboni), in Mark 10:51, is retained in the RV (for AV, "Lord"); in John 20:16, in both AV and RV. This title is said to be Galilean; hence it would be natural in the lips of a woman of Magdala. It does not differ materially from "Rabbi."

[ A-5,Noun,G1988, epistates ]
denotes "a chief, a commander, overseer master." It is used by the disciples in addressing the Lord, in recognition of His authority rather than His instruction (Nos. 1 and 6); it occurs only in Luke 5:5; Luke 8:24, Luke 8:45; Luke 9:33, Luke 9:49; Luke 17:13. In the Sept., 2 Kings 25:19; 2 Chronicles 31:12; Jeremiah 36:26; Jeremiah 52:25.

Note: "The form epistata ... alongside of the commoner didaskale is ... a Greek synonym for the latter, and both are to be traced back to the Aramaic rabbei." Christ forbade His disciples to allow themselves to be called rabbi, "on the ground that He alone was their Master, Matthew 23:8. In reference to Himself the designation was expressive of the real relation between them. The form of address 'Good Master' He, however, refused to allow, Mark 10:17-Mark 10:18 ... in the mouth of the speaker it was mere insolent flattery ... the Lord was unwilling that anyone should thoughtlessly deal with such an epithet; and here, as always, the honor due to the Father was the first consideration with Him. ... The primitive community never ventured to call Jesus 'Our Teacher' after He had been exalted to the Throne of God. The title rabbi, expressing the relation of the disciple to the teacher, vanished from use; and there remained only the designation maran, the servant's appropriate acknowledgement of his Lord" (Dalman).

[ A-6,Noun,G2519, kathegetes ]
properly "a guide" (akin to kathegeomai, "to go before, guide;" kata, "down," hegeomai, "to guide"), denotes "a master, a teacher," Matthew 23:10 (twice); some mss. have it in Matthew 23:8, where the most authentic have No. 1.

[ A-7,Noun,G2942, kubernetes ]
"the pilot or steersman of a ship," or, metaphorically, "a guide or governor" (akin to kubernao, "to guide:" Eng., "govern" is connected; cp. kubernesis, "a steering, pilotage," 1 Corinthians 12:28, "governments"), is translated "master" in Acts 27:11; "shipmaster" in Revelation 18:17. In the Sept., Proverbs 23:34; Ezekiel 27:8, Ezekiel 27:27-Ezekiel 27:28.

[ B-1,Verb,G2634, katakurieuo ]
"to exercise lordship" (kata, "down upon," kurios, "a lord"), is translated "mastered" in Acts 19:16, RV, of the action of the evil spirit on the sons of Sceva (AV, "overcame"). In translating the word amphoteron by its primary meaning, "both," the RV describes the incident as referring to two only. It has been shown, however, that in the period of the Koine (See FOREWARD) amphoteroi, "both," was no longer restricted to two persons. Ramsay ascribes the abruptness of the word here to the vivid narrative of an eye witness. See DOMINION, LORD, LORDSHIP.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words