Envy, Envying - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Envy, Envying

[ A-1,Noun,G5355, phthonos ]
envy," is the feeling of displeasure produced by witnessing or hearing of the advantage or prosperity of others; this evil sense always attaches to this word, Matthew 27:18; Mark 15:10; Romans 1:29; Galatians 5:21; Philippians 1:15; 1 Timothy 6:4; Titus 3:3; 1 Peter 2:1; so in James 4:5, where the question is rhetorical and strongly remonstrative, signifying that the Spirit (or spirit) which God made to dwell in us was certainly not so bestowed that we should be guilty of "envy."

Note: Zelos, "zeal or jealousy," translated "envy" in the AV, in Acts 13:45; Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 12:20; James 3:14, James 3:16, is to be distinguished from phthonos, and, apart from the meanings "zeal" and "indignation," is always translated "jealousy" in the RV. The distinction lies in this, that "envy" desires to deprive another of what he has, "jealousy" desires to have the same or the same sort of thing for itself. See FERVENT, INDIGNATION, JEALOUSY, ZEAL.

[ B-1,Verb,G5354, phthoneo ]
"to envy" (akin to A.), is used in Galatians 5:26.

[ B-2,Verb,G2206, zeloo ]
denotes "to be zealous, moved with jealousy," Acts 7:9; Acts 17:5, RV, "moved with jealousy" (AV, "moved with envy"); both have "envieth" in 1 Corinthians 13:4. See the Note under A. See AFFECT, COVET, DESIRE, JEALOUS, ZEALOUS.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words