Approve, Approved - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Approve, Approved[ A-1,Verb,G1381, dokimazo ]
primarily, of metals (e.g., the Sept. of Proverbs 8:10; Proverbs 17:3), signifies to prove," e.g., 1 John 4:1, more frequently to prove with a view to approval, e.g., Romans 1:28, AV, "they did not like to retain God in their knowledge;" RV, "they refused;" marg., "did not approve," the true meaning. Their refusal was not the outcome of ignorance; they had the power to make a deliberate choice; they willfully disapproved of having God in their knowledge.
In the next chapter, the Apostle speaks of the Jew as "approving things that are excellent," Romans 2:18. The Jew knew God's will, and mentally "approved" of the things in which God had instructed him out of the Law. In Romans 14:22, he is said to be happy who "judgeth not himself in that which he approveth;" that is to say, in that which he "approves" of after having put the matter to the test. The AV "alloweth" has not now this meaning.
As to the gifts from the church at Corinth for poor saints in Judea, those who were "approved" by the church to travel with the offering would be men whose trustworthiness and stability had been proved, 1 Corinthians 16:3 (the RV margin seems right, "whomsoever ye shall approve, them will I send with letters"); cp. 2 Corinthians 8:22.
In Philippians 1:10 the Apostle prays that the saints may "approve the things that are excellent" or "things that differ," i.e., "approve" after distinguishing and discerning.
In 1 Thessalonians 2:4, the Apostle and his fellow-missionaries were "approved of God to be entrusted with the Gospel" (not "allowed," AV). Not permission to preach, but Divine "approval" after Divine testing is intended. See ALLOW, DISCERN, EXAMINE, LIKE, PROVE, REFUSE, TRY.
Note: Cp. dokime, "proof, experience;" See also B.
[ A-2,Verb,G4921, sunistemi ]
lit., "to set together" (sun, "with," histemi, "to stand"), hence signifies "to set one person or thing with another by way of presenting and commending." This meaning is confined to Romans and 2 Corinthians. The saints at Corinth had "approved themselves in everything to be pure," in the matter referred to, 2 Corinthians 7:11. The word often denotes "to commend," so as to meet with approval, Romans 3:5; Romans 5:8; Romans 16:1; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 2 Corinthians 6:4 (RV); 2 Corinthians 10:18; 2 Corinthians 12:11, etc. See COMMEND, COMPACTED, CONSIST (No. 2), STAND.
[ A-3,Verb,G584, apodeiknumi ]
lit., "to point out, to exhibit" (apo, "forth," deiknumi, "to show"), is used once in the sense of proving by demonstration, and so bringing about an "approval." The Lord Jesus was "a Man approved of God by mighty works and wonders and signs," Acts 2:22. See PROVE, SET, No. 17, SHEW.
[ B-1,Adjective,G1384, dokimos ]
akin to dechomai, "to receive," always signifies "approved;" so the RV everywhere, e.g., in James 1:12 for AV, "when he is tried." The word is used of coins and metals in the Sept.; in Genesis 23:16, "four hundred didrachms of silver approved with merchants;" in Zechariah 11:13, in regard to the 30 pieces of silver, "Cast them into a furnace and I will See if it is good (approved) metal."