Afflict (-ed), Affliction - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Afflict (-ed), Affliction

[ A-1,Verb,G2559, kakoo ]
is translated afflict," in Acts 12:1, RV (AV, "vex"). See AFFECT.

[ A-2,Verb,G2558, kakoucheo ]
from kakos, "evil," and echo, "to have," signifies, in the Passive Voice, "to suffer ill, to be maltreated, tormented," Hebrews 11:37 (AV, "tormented," RV, "afflicted"); Hebrews 13:3, AV, "suffer adversity," RV, "evil entreated." See ENTREAT, TORMENT. In the Sept., 1 Kings 2:26; 1 Kings 11:39.

Note: Sunkakoucheo (sun, "with," and No. 1), "to be evil entreated with," is used in Hebrews 11:25.

[ A-3,Verb,G2553, kakopatheo ]
from kakos, "evil," pathos, "suffering," signifies "to suffer hardship." So the RV in 2 Timothy 2:9; 2 Timothy 4:5; in James 5:13, "suffer" (AV, "afflicted). See ENDURE, SUFFER.

Note: For sunkakopatheo, 2 Timothy 1:8, See HARDSHIP.

[ A-4,Verb,G2346, thlibo ]
"to suffer affliction, to be troubled," has reference to sufferings due to the pressure of circumstances, or the antagonism of persons, 1 Thessalonians 3:4; 2 Thessalonians 1:6-7; "straitened," in Matthew 7:14 (RV); "throng," Mark 3:9; "afflicted," 2 Corinthians 1:6; 2 Corinthians 7:5 (RV); 1 Timothy 5:10; Hebrews 11:37; "pressed," 2 Corinthians 4:8. Both the verb and the noun (See B, No. 4), when used of the present experience of believers, refer almost invariably to that which comes upon them from without. See NARROW, PRESS, STRAITENED, THRONG, TRIBULATION, TROUBLE.

[ A-5,Verb,G5003, talaiporeo ]
"to be afflicted," is used in James 4:9, in the Middle Voice ("afflict yourselves"). It is derived from tlao, "to bear, undergo," and poros, "a hard substance, a callus," which metaphorically came to signify that which is miserable.

Note: Talaiporia (akin to No. 5) denotes "misery, hardship," Romans 3:16; James 5:1. The corresponding adjective is talaiporos, "wretched," Romans 7:24; Revelation 3:17.

[ B-1,Noun,G2552, kakopatheia ]
from kakos, "evil," and pascho, "to suffer" is rendered "suffering" in James 5:10, RV (AV, "suffering affliction"). In Sept., Malachi 1:13.

[ B-2,Noun,G2561, kakosis ]
"affliction, ill treatment," is used in Acts 7:34.

[ B-3,Noun,G3804, pathema ]
from pathos, "suffering," signifies "affliction." The word is frequent in Paul's epistles and is found three times in Hebrews, four in 1 Peter; it is used
(a) of "afflictions," Romans 8:18, etc.; of Christ's "sufferings," 1 Peter 1:11; 1 Peter 5:1; Hebrews 2:9; of those as shared by believers, 2 Corinthians 1:5; Philippians 3:10; 1 Peter 4:13; 1 Peter 5:1;
(b) of "an evil emotion, passion," Romans 7:5; Galatians 5:24. The connection between the two meanings is that the emotions, whether good or evil, were regarded as consequent upon external influences exerted on the mind (cp. the two meanings of the English "passion"). It is more concrete than No. 1, and expresses in sense
(b) the uncontrolled nature of evil desires, in contrast to epithumia, the general and comprehensive term, lit., "what you set your heart upon" (Trench, Syn. lxxxvii). Its concrete character is seen in Hebrews 2:9. See AFFECTION, MOTION, PASSION, SUFFERING.

Note: The corresponding verbal form pathetos, used in Acts 26:23 of the sufferings of Christ, signifies "destined to suffer."

[ B-4,Noun,G2347, thlipsis ]
primarily means "a pressing, pressure" (See A, No. 4), anything which burdens the spirit. In two passages in Paul's Epistles it is used of future retribution, in the way of "affliction," Romans 2:9; 2 Thessalonians 1:6. In Matthew 24:9, the AV renders it as a verb, "to be afflicted," (RV, "unto tribulation"). It is coupled with stenochoria, "anguish," in Romans 2:9; Romans 8:35; with ananke, "distress," 1 Thessalonians 3:7; with diogmos, "persecution," Matthew 13:21; Mark 4:17; 2 Thessalonians 1:4. It is used of the calamities of war, Matthew 24:21, Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:19, Mark 13:24; of want, 2 Corinthians 8:13, lit., "distress for you;" Philippians 4:14 (cp. Philippians 1:16); James 1:27; of the distress of woman in child-birth, John 16:21; of persecution, Acts 11:19; Acts 14:22; Acts 20:23; 1 Thessalonians 3:3, 1 Thessalonians 3:7; Hebrews 10:33; Revelation 2:10; Revelation 7:14; of the "afflictions" of Christ, from which (His vicarious sufferings apart) his followers must not shrink, whether sufferings of body or mind, Colossians 1:24; of sufferings in general, 1 Corinthians 7:28; 1 Thessalonians 1:6, etc. See ANGUISH, BURDENED, DISTRESS, PERSECUTION, TRIBULATION, TROUBLE.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words