Accusation, Accuse - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Accusation, Accuse[ A-1,Noun,G156, aitia ]
probably has the primary meaning of a cause, especially an occasion of something evil, hence a charge, an accusation." It is used in a forensic sense, of
(a) an accusation, Acts 25:18 (RV, "charge"), Acts 25:27;
(b) a crime, Matthew 27:37; Mark 15:26; John 18:38; John 19:4, John 19:6; Acts 13:28; Acts 23:28; Acts 28:18. See CASE, CAUSE, CHARGE, CRIME, FAULT.
[ A-2,Noun,G157, aitioma ]
"an accusation," expressing No. 1 more concretely, is found in Acts 25:7, RV, "charges," for AV, "complaints." See COMPLAINT.
[ A-3,Noun,G1462, enklema ]
is "an accusation made in public," but not necessarily before a tribunal. That is the case in Acts 23:29, "laid to his charge." In Acts 25:16 it signifies a matter of complaint; hence, the RV has "the matter laid against him" (AV, "crime"). See CHARGE, CRIME.
[ A-4,Noun,G2724, kategoria ]
"an accusation," is found in John 18:29; 1 Timothy 5:19; Titus 1:6, lit., "not under accusation." This and the verb kategoreo, "to accuse," and the noun kategoros, "an accuser" (See below), all have chiefly to do with judicial procedure, as distinct from diaballo, "to slander." It is derived from agora, "a place of public speaking," prefixed by kata, "against;" hence, it signifies a speaking against a person before a public tribunal. It is the opposite to apologia, "a defense."
Note: Krisis, which has been translated "accusation," in the AV of 2 Peter 2:11; Jude 1:9 (RV, "judgement"), does not come under this category. It signifies "a judgment, a decision given concerning anything."
[ B-1,Verb,G1225, diaballo ]
used in Luke 16:1, in the Passive Voice, lit. signifies "to hurl across" (dia, "through," ballo, "to throw"), and suggests a verbal assault. It stresses the act rather than the author, as in the case of aitia and kategoria. Diabolos is connected.
[ B-2,Verb,G1458, enkaleo ]
See A, No. 3, "to bring a charge against, or to come forward as an accuser against," lit. denotes "to call in" (en, "in," kaleo, "to call"), i.e., "to call (something) in or against (someone);" hence, "to call to account, to accuse," Acts 19:38, RV (AV, "implead"); in Acts 19:40, "accused" (AV, "call in question"). It is used in four other places in the Acts, Acts 23:28-Acts 23:29; Acts 26:2, Acts 26:7, and elsewhere in Romans 8:33, "shall lay to the charge." See CALL, IMPLEAD.
[ B-3,Verb,G1908, epereazo ]
besides its more ordinary meaning, "to insult, treat abusively, despitefully," Luke 6:28, has the forensic significance "to accuse falsely," and is used with this meaning in 1 Peter 3:16, RV, "revile." See DESPITEFULLY, REVILE.
[ B-4,Verb,G2723, kategoreo ]
"to speak against, accuse" (cp. A, No. 4), is used
(a) in a general way, "to accuse," e.g., Luke 6:7, RV, "how to accuse;" Romans 2:15; Revelation 12:10;
(b) before a judge, e.g., Matthew 12:10; Mark 15:4 (RV, "witness against"); Acts 22:30; Acts 25:16. In Acts 24:19, RV renders it "make accusation," for the AV, "object." See OBJECT, WITNESS.
[ B-5,Verb,G4811, sukophanteo ]
(Eng., "sycophant") means
(a) "to accuse wrongfully;" Luke 3:14 (AV and RV, margin); RV, "exact wrongfully;"
(b) "to exact money wrongfully, to take anything by false accusation," Luke 19:8, and the RV text of Luke 3:14. It is more frequently found in the Sept.; See Genesis 43:18, "to inform against;" Leviticus 19:11, "neither shall each falsely accuse his neighbor;" Job 35:9, "they that are oppressed by false accusation;" Psalms 119:122, "let not the proud accuse me falsely;" Proverbs 14:31; Proverbs 22:16 "he that oppresses the needy by false accusation."
The word is derived from sukon, "a fig," and phaino, "to show." At Athens a man whose business it was to give information against anyone who might be detected exporting figs out of the province, is said to have been called a sukophantes (See Note
(2) below). Probably, however, the word was used to denote one who brings figs to light by shaking the tree, and then in a metaphorical sense one who makes rich men yield up their fruit by "false accusation." Hence in general parlance it was used to designate "a malignant informer," one who accused from love of gain. See EXACT.
Note: Proaitiaomai denotes "to bring a previous charge against," Romans 3:9, RV. See CHARGE.