BDB3995 [H3588 H518]

כִּי conjunction that, for, when (Moabite id,: Phoenician כ. Probably from the same demonstrative basis found in here, and in certain pronouns, as Aramaic דֵּךְ this (WSG 110 f.); perhaps also ultimately akin with that, in order that, and then, enclitic, like Latin nam in quisnam?) —

1. that (ὅτι, German dass):
\ \ a. prefixed to sentences depending on an active verb, and occupying to it the place of an accusative: so constantly, after verbs of seeing, as Gen 1:10 וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי טוֺב and God saw that it was good, Gen 3:6; Gen 6:2; Gen 6:5; Gen 12:14 + often, hearing Gen 14:14; Gen 29:33, knowing Gen 22:12; Gen 24:14, telling Gen 3:11; Gen 12:18, repenting Gen 6:6; Gen 6:7, swearing Gen 22:16; Jer 22:5, believing Exod 4:5; Lam 4:12, remembering Ps 78:35, forgetting Job 39:15 אָמַר = command (late; in early Hebrew the words said are quoted) Job 36:10; Job 36:24 (זְכֹר in a command) Job 37:20 b 1Chr 21:18 (contrast 2Sam 24:18) etc.; טוֺב כּי it is good that ... 2Sam 18:2 + (usually the infinitive with, as Gen 2:18 see ibid.); Gen 37:26 מַהבֶּֿצַע כִּי נַהֲרֹג what profit that we should slay (imperfect)...? Mal 3:14 what proft כִּי שָׁמַרְנוּ that we have kept (perfect)...? Job 22:3 הַחֵפֶץ לְשַׁדַּי כִּי is it pleasure to Shaddai that...? after a pronoun, as Ps 41:12 by this I know that thou hast pleasure in me, that my enemy cannot triumph over me, Ps 42:5 these things will I remember...that (or how) I used to go, etc., Ps 56:10 this I know that God is for me Job 13:16 (הוא). And with כִּי repeated pleonastic after an intervening clause 2Sam 19:7; Jer 26:15 +; כִּי ֗֗֗ וְכִי Gen 3:6; Gen 29:12; Exod 4:31; Josh 2:9; Josh 8:21; Josh 10:1; 1Sam 31:7; 2Sam 5:12; 1Kgs 11:21; Jer 40:7; Jer 40:11 לֵאמֹר ֗֗֗ וְכִי Gen 45:26; Judg 10:10.
\ \ b. כִּי often introduces the direct narration (like , , and the Greek ὅτι recitativum, e.g. Luke 4:21), in which case it cannot be represented in English (except by inverted commas), Gen 21:30; Gen 29:33 and she said, ׳כִּי שׁמע י Yahweh hath heard, etc.; Exod 3:12 = Judg 6:16 and he said, כִּי אֶהְיֶה עִמָּ֑ךְ I will be with thee, Josh 2:24; 1Sam 2:16 (see Dr) 1Sam 10:19 and ye have said to him, כִּי מֶלָךְ תָּשִׂים עָלֵינוּ Thou shalt set a king over us, 2Sam 11:23; 1Kgs 1:13; 1Kgs 20:5; Ruth 1:10, compare Ruth 2:21 (but in reply to a question כִּי may = because, see below 3; and so also in sentences giving the explanation of a proper name, Gen 26:22; Gen 29:32 (but De surely: see below), Exod 2:10 (compare Gen 4:25; Gen 41:51; Gen 41:52); in כִּי מָה, introducing an expostulation, 1Sam 29:8; 1Kgs 11:22; 2Kgs 8:13, it gives the reason for a suppressed 'Why do you say this?').
\ \ c. especially after an oath חַי אָ֫נִי, ׳חַי י etc., introducing the fact sworn to, Gen 42:16 by the life of Pharaoh, כִּי מְרַגְּלִים אַתֶּם (I say) that ye are spies; but though Hebrew usage probably gave it an asseverative force, English idiom does not require it to be expressed: Num 14:22; 1Sam 20:3 as ׳י liveth, כִּי כְפֶשַׂע בֵּינִי וּבֵין הַמָּוֶת there is but a step between me and death! 1Sam 26:16; 1Sam 29:6; Isa 49:18 +; 1Sam 14:44 כֹּהיַֿעֲשֶׂה אֱלֹהִים וְכֹה יוֺסִיף כִּי מוֺת תָּמוּת thus may God do and more also: thou shalt surely die! 2Sam 3:35; 1Kgs 2:23; Ruth 1:17 and elsewhere — Note that כִּי when thus used is often repeated after an intervening clause, in order that its force may be fully preserved: Gen 1:39 כִּי מוֺת יָמוּת (אִםיֶֿשְׁנוֺ בְּיוֺנָתָן בְּנִי) כִּי ׳חַי י 1Sam 25:34; 2Sam 2:27 ׳כִּי אָז וג (לוּלֵא דִּבַּרְתָּ) כִּי, 2Sam 3:9; 2Sam 15:21 Qr 1Kgs 1:30; Jer 22:24.
\ \ d. כִּי is used sometimes with advs. and interjs. to add force or distinctness to the affirmation which follows:
\ \ \ (a) so especially in אַף כִּי (see אַף); הֲכִי is it that . . .? (as a neutral interrogative) 2Sam 9:1, (expecting a negative answer) Gen 29:15 is it that thou art my brother, and shalt (therefore) serve me for nothing? Job 6:22 is it that I have said, Give unto me? expressing surprise Gen 27:36 is it that he is called Jacob, and has (hence) supplanted me twice? 2Sam 23:19 an affirm. answer is required (which would imply הֲלֹא כִי): read probably with the || 1Chr 11:25 הִנּוֺ be-hold, he, etc.; אִםלֹֿא כִּי Deut 32:30 were it not that .. .; אָמְנָם כִּי Job 12:2 of a truth (is it) that ye are the people, etc.; אַךְ כִּי 1Sam 8:9 אֶפֶם כִּי Num 13:28 +; גַּם כִּי Ruth 2:21 הֲלֹא כִי 1Sam 10:1 (but see ᵐ5 Dr), 2Sam 13:28 הִנֵּה כִי Ps 128:4 compare Ps 118:10 כִּי אֲמִיַ˜לם ׳בְּשֵׁם י in the name of ׳י (is it) that — or (I say) that — I will mow them down; Job 39:27 doth the vulture mount up at thy command, וְכִי יָרִים קִנּוֺ and (is it) that it (so) makes high its nest? Isa 36:19 have the gods of the nations delivered each his land etc.? . . . וְכִי הִצִּילוּ i.e. (Hi) and (is it) that they have delivered Samaria out of my hand? > (Ew§ 354 c De Di) and that they have delivered Samaria out of my hand! = how much less (אַף כִּי) have they, etc.! (|| 2Kgs 18:34 כִּי alone, perhaps conformed by error to v2Kgs 18:35; 2Chr 32:15 אַף כִּי, which however does not decide the sense of the original וְכִי). 1Chr 29:14 וְכִי מִי read ומי or כי מי
\ \ \ (b) in introducing the apodosis, especially in כִּי עַתָּה (chiefly after לוּלֵא) indeed then . . ., Gen 31:42; Gen 43:10 for unless we had tarried כִּי עַתָּה שַׁבְנוּ surely then we had returned twice, Num 22:33 (read לוּלֵי for אוּלַי); so 1Sam 14:30 ᵐ5 (after לוּא), and 1Sam 13:13 Hi We (לֻא for לֹא); after אִם Job 8:6 surely then he will awake over thee, etc. (But elsewhere כִּי עַתָּה is simply for now, Gen 29:32; Job 7:21 +; or for then = for in that case, Exod 9:15; Num 22:29; Job 3:13; Job 6:3 +). It is dubious whether כִּי אָז has the same sense: for 2Sam 2:27; 2Sam 19:7 the כִּי in כִּי אָז may be merely resumptive of the כִּי recitation preceding (see a, c). Rare otherwise: Exod 22:22 if thou afflict him כִּי אִםצָֿעֹק יִצְעַק 'tis that (= indeed), if he cries unto me, I will hear him, Isa 7:9 if ye believe not כִּי לֹא תֵאֵָ˜מנוּ ׃ indeed ye will not be established.
\ \ e. there seem also to be other cases in which כִּי, standing alone, has an intensive force, introducing a statement with emphasis, yea, surely, certainly (German ja — a lighter particle than these English words): see in AV RV Exod 18:11; Num 23:23; 1Sam 17:25; 1Sam 20:26; 2Kgs 23:22; Isa 32:13; Isa 60:9; Jer 22:22; Jer 31:19; Hos 6:9; Hos 8:6; Hos 9:12; Hos 10:3; Amos 3:7; Ps 76:11; Ps 77:12 (Ew Che), Prov 30:2 (but not if construed as RVm), Eccl 4:16; Eccl 7:7; Eccl 7:20; Job 28:1 +; Lam 3:22 (ᵑ6 ᵑ7 Ew Th Öttli) the mercies of ׳י, surely they are not consumed (read probably תַמּוּ or תָֽמְמוּ for תמנו), Ruth 3:12 כִּי אָמְנָם yea, indeed. But it is doubtful whether כִּי has this force in all the passages for which scholars have had recourse to it, and whether in some it is not simply = for. DeProv 30:1 would restrict the usage to cases in which a suppressed clause may be understood. feminine that, expressing consecution, especially after a question implying surprise or deprecation: followed by perf., Gen 20:9 what have I sinned against thee כִּי הֵבֵאתָ עָלַי that thou hast brought upon me? 1Sam 22:8; Isa 22:1 what aileth thee, that thou art gone up, etc.? vIsa 22:16; Isa 36:5; Isa 52:5; Mic 4:9; Hab 2:18 followed by participle Judg 14:3; 1Sam 20:1; 1Kgs 18:9 how have I sinned that thou art giving, etc.? 2Kgs 5:7; Ezek 24:19 usually followed by imperfect Exod 3:11 who am I כִּי אֵלֵךְ that I should go, etc.? Exod 16:7; Judg 8:6; Judg 9:28; 2Kgs 8:13; Isa 7:13; Isa 29:16 (also perfect), Ps 8:5 what is man כִּי תִזְכְּרֶנּוּ? Job 3:12 or why the breasts כִּי אִינָָֽק ׃ that I should suck? Job 6:11 מַהכֹּֿחִי כִּי אִַיַחֵל, Job 7:12; Job 7:17; Job 10:5f.; Job 13:25f.; Job 15:12f; Job 15:14; Job 16:3; Job 21:15 +; after a negative, Gen 40:15 here also I have done nothing כִּי שָׂמוּ that they should have placed me in the dungeon, Ps 44:19f. our heart has not turned backward, etc. כִּי דִכִּיתָנוּ that thou shouldst have crushed us, etc., Isa 43:22 not me hast thou called on, כִּי יָגַעְתָּ בִּי that thou shouldst have wearied thyself with me, Hos 1:6 (see RV), Job 41:2; Ruth 1:12 I am too old to have an husband כִּי אָמַרְתִּי that I should have said, etc. (compare Ew§ 337 a; Dr§ 39 δ).
\ \ g. added to preps. כִּי converts them, like אֲשֶׁר, into conjs. ..., as יַעַן כִּי because that...: see below יַעַן, עַד, עַל, עֵקֶב, תַּחַת.

2. a. Of time, when, of the past וַיְהִי כִּי Gen 6:1 (compare BuUrg. 6), Gen 26:8; Gen 27:1; 2Sam 6:13; 2Sam 7:1; 2Sam 19:26 + (כַּאֲשֶׁר and especially כְּ with infinitive, are more frequently); וְהָיָה כִּי (simple וְ) 1Sam 1:12; 1Sam 17:48; Josh 22:7; Judg 2:18; Judg 12:5 והיה כי יאמרו and it would be, whenever (frequently) they said, Jer 44:19 (participle), Hos 11:1; Ps 32:3 כי החרשׁתי when I was silent, Job 31:21; Job 31:26; Job 31:29 of present (usually with imperfect) as Exod 18:16 כִּי יִהְיֶה לָהֶם דָּבָר when they have a matter, 1Sam 24:20; Isa 1:12; Isa 30:21; Jer 14:12; Zech 7:5; Zech 7:6; Mal 1:8; Ps 49:19 and men praise thee כִּי תֵיטִיב לָ֑ךְ when thou doest well to thyself, Ps 102:1; Ps 127:5 +, with perfect Ezek 3:19-21; Ezek 33:9; Prov 11:15; Prov 23:22 especially of future, as Gen 4:12 כִּי תַעֲבֹד אֶתהָֿאֲדָמָה when thou shalt till the ground it shall not, etc., Gen 24:41; Gen 30:33; Gen 31:49; Gen 32:18; Exod 7:9 when Pharaoh shall speak unto you, Deut 4:25; Deut 6:20 +; in phrase (׳תאֹמַר וג) וְכִי תאֹמְרוּ Lev 25:20; Deut 18:21; Isa 8:19; Isa 36:7; Jer 13:22 and especially in ... וְהָיָה כִּי Gen 12:12; Gen 46:33; Deut 6:10; Deut 15:16; 1Sam 10:7; 1Sam 25:30; Isa 8:21; Isa 10:12 + often; with perfect Isa 16:12; 1Chr 17:11 (altered from imperfect 2Sam 7:12); with participle (unusual) Num 33:51; Num 34:2; Deut 11:31; Deut 18:9.
\ \ b. elsewhere כִּי has a force approximating to if, though it usually represents a case as more likely to occur than אִם: — (mostly with imperfect) Gen 38:16; Num 5:20; Num 10:32; Deut 6:25; Deut 7:17; Deut 28:2; Deut 28:13; 1Sam 20:13; 2Sam 19:8; 2Kgs 4:29; 2Kgs 18:22; Jer 38:15; Prov 4:8; Job 7:13 (כי אמרתי when I say), Job 19:28 often in laws, as Exod 21:14; Exod 21:33; Exod 21:35; Exod 21:37; Exod 22:4; Exod 22:5 etc., Deut 13:13; Deut 14:24; Deut 15:7; Deut 15:12; Deut 17:2; Deut 18:6; Deut 18:21 etc.; sometimes, in particular, to state a principle broadly, after which special cases are introduced by אִם, as Exod 21:2 when (כִּי) thou buyest a Hebrew servant, he shall serve thee six years, after which vExod 21:3-5 follow four special cases with אִם if: so Exod 21:7 (כי), vExod 21:8-11 (אם); vExod 21:18 (כי), vExod 21:19 (אם); vExod 21:20 (כי), vExod 21:21 (אם); vExod 21:22 f; vExod 21:28-32; Lev 1:2 (כי), vLev 1:3 vLev 1:10 (אם) Lev 4:2; Lev 4:3; Lev 4:13; Lev 4:27; Lev 4:32; Lev 13:2ff. Num 30:3ff. +; though this distinction is not uniformly observed, contrast e.g. Exod 21:5 with Deut 15:16; Num 5:19 and vNum 5:20. —
N.B. with כִּי = when or if, the subject is often prefixed for distinctness and emphasis: 1Kgs 8:37 רָעָב ׳כִּייִֿהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ דֶּבֶר כִּי יִהְיֶה וג, Isa 28:18; Mic 5:4 אַשּׁוּר כִּייָֿבאֹ בְאַרְצֵנוּ, Ps 62:11; Ezek 3:19 (וְאַתָּה), Ezek 14:9; Ezek 14:13; Ezek 18:5; Ezek 18:18; Ezek 18:21; Ezek 33:6 (compare vEzek 33:2); and especially in laws of P, as כִּי ֗֗֗ אָדָם Lev 1:2; Lev 13:2, ... נֶפֶשׁ כִּי Lev 2:1; Lev 4:2; Lev 5:1; Lev 5:4; Lev 5:15, similarly Lev 15:2; Lev 15:16; Lev 15:19; Lev 15:25; Lev 22:12; Lev 22:13; Lev 22:14 etc., rather differently Num 5:20.
\ \ c. when or if, with a concessive force, i.e. though:
\ \ \ (a) with imperfect Jer 4:30 (3 t. in verse); Jer 14:12; Jer 49:16 כִּיתַֿגְבִּיהַּ כַּנֶּשֶׁר קִנֶּ֑ךָ though thou make high like the vulture thy nest, I will bring thee down thence, Jer 51:53; Hos 13:15; Zech 8:6; Ps 37:24; Ps 49:19f. though in his lifetime he bless himself ... he shall come, etc., perhaps also Jer 46:23 Ew (but Hi Gf Ke for), Jer 50:11 Ew Ke (Hi yea); and strengthened by גַּם, גַּם כִּי Isa 1:5; Ps 23:4 (compare Dr§ 143);
\ \ \ (b) with perf. (rare) Mic 7:8 כִּי נָפַלְתִּי קָ֑מְתִּי though I have fallen, I rise, Nah 1:10 (si vera 1.), Ps 21:12 (Hi Ew Now), Ps 119:88 (Ew De).

3. Because, since ὅτι
\ \ a. Gen 3:14 because thou hast done this, cursed art thou, etc., vGen 3:17; Gen 18:20; Gen 17:20 the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah — because it is great ... (subject prefixed for emphasis: compare 2
N.B.) Isa 28:15 in answer to a question, Gen 27:20; Exod 1:19; Exod 18:15; 2Sam 19:43 +. Enunciating the conditions under which a future action is conceived as possible (German indem) Lev 22:9; Deut 4:29 כי תדרשׁנו, Deut 12:20 (see Dr), vDeut 12:25 vDeut 12:28; Deut 13:19; Deut 14:24; Deut 16:15; Deut 19:6; Deut 19:9 +, 1Kgs 8:35 (compare v1Kgs 8:33 אֲשֶׁר), v1Kgs 8:36 כִּי תוֺרֵם, Prov 4:8b.
\ \ b. more commonly the causal sentence follows, as Gen 2:3 and God blessed the seventh day ׳כִּי בוֺ שָׁבַת וג because on it he rested, etc., Gen 4:25 etc., in which case it may often be rendered for, Gen 2:5; Gen 2:28; Gen 3:20; Gen 5:24; Gen 6:7; Gen 6:12; Gen 6:13; Ps 6:3 heal me כִּי נִבְהֲלוּ עֲצָמָ֑י for my bones are vexed, Ps 10:14; Ps 25:16; Ps 27:10 + very often specifically after verbs expressive of mental emotions, as rejoicing Isa 14:29; Ps 58:11, being angry Gen 31:35; Gen 45:5, fearing Gen 43:18; Ps 49:17 etc. Iron. 1Kgs 18:27 for he is a god etc. (4 t.); Prov 30:4; Job 38:5 כִּי תֵדָ֑ע for or since thou knowest. With subject prefixed Ps 128:2. Repeated (with anacoluthon) Isa 49:19.
\ \ c. the causal relation expressed by כִּי is sometimes subtle, especially in poetry, and not apparent without careful study of a passage. Thus sometimes it justifies a statement or description by pointing to a pregnant fact which involves it, as Isa 3:8a Job 6:21 (ground of the comparison vJob 6:15-20), Job 14:16 (For...: ground of the wishes expressed vJob 14:13-15), Job 16:22 (ground of vJob 16:20f.) Job 30:26 (For ...), or by pointing to a general truth which it exemplifies Job 5:6 (reason why complaining vJob 5:2-5 is foolish), Job 15:34; Job 23:14 sometimes it is explicative, justifying a statement by unfolding the particulars which establish or exemplify it 2Sam 5:7; 2Sam 7:8; Isa 9:4; Isa 10:8-11; Isa 13:10 (development of vIsa 13:9a); Isa 32:6 f. (developing the characters of the נָבָל and כִּילַי, and so explaining why they will no longer be esteemed vIsa 32:5); Job 11:16ff. (explicit of vJob 11:15b), Job 18:8 ff. (justifying vJob 18:7), Job 22:26 ff. (justifying vJob 22:25); elsewhere the cause is expressed indirectly or figuratively Isa 2:6 (reason why invitation vIsa 2:5 is needed), The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
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