BDB2699 [H2403]

חַטָּאת noun feminine1Sam 14:38 (Gen 4:7 no exception for רֹבֵץ is noun = crouching beast) sin, sin-offering, ׳ח Gen 4:7 + 124 t.; לְחַטָּ֯ת Num 15:24 (text error for. לחטאת), לְחַטַּאת Zech 13:1 (but read לְחַטָּאת StaZAW i. 35); construct חַטַּאת Exod 30:10 + 19 t.; suffix חַטָּאתִי Gen 31:36 + 16 t.; חַטָּאתֹיו֯ 1Kgs 16:26, חַטַּאתְכֶם Exod 32:30 + 3 t.; etc., + 52 t. suffix; plural חַטָּאוֺת 2Kgs 12:17 + 3 t.; construct חַטּאֹות Ps 25:7 + 17 t.; חַטּאֹת Num 5:6 + 6 t.; suffix חַטּאֹותָ֑י Ps 25:18 חַטּאֹתָו֯ Ezek 18:21; Ezek 33:16, etc., + 40 t. suffix; —

1. sin:
\ \ a. against man Gen 31:36; Gen 50:17 (E), Num 12:11 (J) 1Sam 20:1 אדם ׳ח sins against man Num 5:6 (P). Elsewhere
\ \ b. against God Lev 4:14; Lev 4:23; Lev 4:28 (P), 1Sam 2:17; 1Sam 14:38; 1Kgs 16:13 (twice in verse); 2Kgs 21:16; 2Kgs 21:17; 2Kgs 2:19; 2Kgs 30:1; 2Kgs 58:1; 2Kgs 59:2; 2Kgs 59:12; 2Kgs 16:10; 2Kgs 16:18; Isa 30:14; Isa 30:15; Isa 50:20; Lam 4:6; Lam 4:22; Ezek 16:51; Ezek 18:14; Ezek 21:29; Ezek 33:10; Ezek 33:16; (We Kl. Proph. reads חטאיכם), as Isa 1:18 — see חֵטא — on accusative of masculine עצומים), Mic 1:13; Mic 3:8; Ps 32:5; Ps 51:5; Ps 59:4; Prov 5:22; Prov 13:6; Prov 14:34; Prov 21:4; Prov 24:9; Prov 14:23; Dan 9:20 (twice in verse); נעורי ׳ח sins of my youth Ps 25:7 נפשׁי ׳פרי בטני ח Mic 6:7 fruit of my body (my child as an offering) for the sin of myself; sin of divination 1Sam 15:23 of the mouth Ps 59:13 עמי יאכלו ׳ח Hos 4:8 the sin of my people they eat (gain their daily food by means of it, compare We; ᵑ7 Hi Or and others sin-offering, but this not elsewhere in early prophets, and || עָוֺן against it, see WeProl. 3. 76); לפתח חטאת רבץ Gen 4:7 (J) at the door (of Cain) sin is a crouching beast; sin of the people is embodied in the golden calf Deut 9:21 and the high places of Beath Aven Hos 10:8 with בְּ on the ground of sin Neh 9:37 for sin Mic 1:5; 2Kgs 24:3; Isa 40:2; Jer 15:13; Jer 17:3; Ezek 16:52 with or by sin 1Kgs 14:22; 1Kgs 16:2; Isa 43:24 ׳הלך בח walk in sin 1Kgs 15:3; 1Kgs 15:26; 1Kgs 15:34; 1Kgs 16:19; 1Kgs 16:26; 1Kgs 16:31; 2Kgs 17:22 ׳דבק בח cleave unto sin 2Kgs 3:3 with עַל on account of sin Deut 9:18; 1Kgs 15:30; 1Kgs 16:19; Mic 6:13 for sin Lev 4:3; Lev 4:28; Lev 4:35; Lev 5:6; Lev 5:13 (P) Lev 19:22; Lev 26:18; Lev 26:24; Lev 26:28 (H); ׳יסף על ח add unto sin 1Sam 12:19; 2Chr 28:13; Isa 30:1; Job 34:37 with כְּ according to sin Lev 26:21 with לְ to or for sin Lev 16:16; Lev 16:21; Deut 19:15; 1Kgs 12:30; 1Kgs 13:34; Prov 10:16; Zech 13:1 with מִן because of sin Lev 4:26; Lev 5:6; Lev 5:10; Lev 16:34 (P), Lev 19:22 (H), Lam 4:13 more than sin Job 35:3 טָהַרְתִּי מֵחַטָּאתִי I am clean from my sin Prov 20:9 ׳מגני ח because of sin Ps 38:4 ׳בגלל ח because of sin 1Kgs 14:16 הלך ׳אחר ח walk after sin 2Kgs 13:2.
\ \ c. men should return from sin שׁוּב מִן 1Kgs 8:35 = 2Chr 6:26; Ezek 18:21; Ezek 33:14 depart from it סוּר מֵעַל 2Kgs 10:31; 2Kgs 15:18 סוּר מן 2Kgs 13:6; 2Kgs 13:11; 2Kgs 14:24; 2Kgs 15:9; 2Kgs 15:24; 2Kgs 15:28 be concerned about דאג מן Ps 38:19 confess ׳הִתְוַדָּה ח Num 5:7 (P); ׳התודה על ה Neh 1:6; Neh 9:2.
\ \ d. God deals with sin: (1) he visits punishment upon it (על) פקד Exod 32:34 (JE) Hos 8:13; Hos 9:9; Jer 14:10 inquires after it דרשׁ ל Job 10:6 watches over it שׁמר על Job 14:16 hoards it up Hos 13:12 (2) by forgiveness: ׳נשׂא ה Exod 10:17; Exod 32:32 (JE), 1Sam 15:25 ׳נשׂא עון ח Ps 32:5 ׳נשׂא לח Josh 24:19 (E), Ps 25:18 pardon ׳סלח לח Exod 34:9 (JE) 1Kgs 8:34; 1Kgs 8:36; 2Chr 6:25; 2Chr 6:27; 2Chr 7:14; Jer 36:3 removal הסר Isa 27:9 העביר 2Sam 12:13 casting into the depths of the sea Mic 7:19 (3) by covering over, making atonement for חַטָּֽאתְךָ תְּכֻפָּ֑ר Isa 6:7 thy sin shall be covered over; actively, ׳כפּר עַל ח Ps 79:9 ׳כסּה ח Ps 85:3 (compare כְּסוּי חֲטָאָה Ps 32:1); ׳לְהָתֵם ח (Qr) make an end of sins Dan 9:24 (4) by blotting out ׳מחה ח Isa 44:22; Jer 18:23; Ps 109:14; Neh 3:37 cleanse from sin ׳טַהֲרֵנִי מח Ps 51:4 ׳מקוֺר לח a fountain for sin Zech 13:1 (5) by not remembering it ׳לא זכר ח Isa 43:25 לא זכר ׳לח Jer 31:34 אַלתֵּֿפֶן אֶלחַֿטָאתוֺ Deut 9:27 look not unto his sin.
\ \ e. atonement may be secured for, ׳כפּר בעד ח Exod 32:30 (J E; Moses, by his intercession). feminine according to P (H) the priest is to make atonement for a person (כפּר על) by sin-offering or trespass-offering; ׳מח because of sin Lev 4:26; Lev 5:6; Lev 5:10; Lev 16:34 ׳על ח Lev 4:35; Lev 5:13 (all P), Lev 19:22 (H; see Wecompare, 59 = JBTh xxii, 427), so that the man is clean from sin ׳טהר מח Lev 16:30.
2. condition of sin, guilt of sin Gen 18:20; Num 16:26; Num 32:23 (J), Ezek 3:20; Ezek 18:24, יְהוּדָה חֲרוּשָׁה עַללֿוּחַ לִבָּם ׳ח וּלְקַרְנוֺת מִוְבְּחוֺתֵיכֶם the sin (guilt) of Judah is graven upon the table of their hear, and upon the horns of your altars Jer 17:1.
3. punishment for sin: כָלהַֿגּוֺיִם ׳מִצְרָ֑יִם וח ׳זֹאת תִּהְיֶה ח Zech 14:19 this will be the punishment for sin of Egypt and the punishment for sin of all nations (the plague with which Yahweh will smite them).
4. sin-offering: one of the kinds of offerings of P, Lev 7:37 first in the history 2Kgs 12:17 (reign of Jehoash), where חטּאת of money given to priests; elsewhere only in Chronicles: 2Chr 29:21; 2Chr 29:23; 2Chr 29:24 Hezekiah had made a ׳ח of 7 צְפִירֵי עִזִּים at purification of temple; Ezra 8:35 12 צְפִירֵי ׳ח were offered; Neh 10:34 ׳ח || עולות; — in these no evidence of special ritual. Sin-offering elsewhere only in codes of H Ezekiel and P. — On Hos 4:8 see
1. above In H, Lev 23:19 a שׂעיר עזים, for feast of weeks. In Ezekiel ׳ח in general || other sacrifices, Ezek 40:39; Ezek 45:17; Ezek 45:25; Ezek 46:20 and priests eat them Ezek 42:13; Ezek 44:29. At dedication of altar, the blood of a young bullock was to be applied to horns of altar, the corners of its settle and its border, the bullock itself burnt without the sanctuary; for each of the 7 days following a שׂעיר עזים was to be offered Ezek 43:19; Ezek 43:21; Ezek 43:22; Ezek 43:25. On first day of first month a young bullock was to offered to cleanse the sanctuary: its blood put on the door posts of the house and of the gate of the inner court an on the four corners of the settle of the altar; also on the seventh day (ᵐ5 first day of seventh month) Ezek 45:17; Ezek 45:19 (compare vEzek 45:18 vEzek 45:20). On 14th day of first month the prince was to offer a bullock for himself and the people and on each of the 7 days of the Passover week a שׂעיר עזים Ezek 45:22; Ezek 45:23. When a priest entered the sanctuary to minister after his cleaning he was to offer his sin-offering Ezek 44:27. P gives several grades:
\ \ a. a ruler should offer a he-goat Lev 4:24; Lev 4:25; Num 7:16; Num 7:22; Num 7:28; Num 7:34; Num 7:40; Num 7:46; Num 7:52; Num 7:58; Num 7:64; Num 7:70; Num 7:76; Num 7:82; Num 7:87 an ordinary person a she-goat Lev 4:29 (compare vLev 4:28) Lev 5:6; Num 15:27, ewe lamb Lev 4:32; Lev 4:33 (twice in verse); Lev 4:34; Lev 14:19; Num 6:14; Num 6:16, a turtle dove or young pigeon Lev 5:7; Lev 5:8; Lev 5:9 (twice in verse); Lev 12:6; Lev 12:8; Lev 14:22; Lev 14:31; Lev 15:15; Lev 15:30; Num 6:11, or one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour Lev 5:11 (twice in verse); Lev 5:12 according to ability of the person, and nature of offence. The victim was brought unto the tent of meeting, the hands of the offerer laid on its head, it was slaughtered by the offerer, the priest took some of the blood and put it on horns of altar of burnt-offering and the rest of the blood he poured out at the base of it, to cover over the sin, or cleanse the altar from the sin defiling it. All the fat pieces (compare Lev 4:22; Lev 4:35) and a handful of the flour (compare Lev 5:12) were burned on altar. The rest of the flesh and the flour were eaten by priests in court of Holy place Lev 5:13; Lev 6:10; Lev 6:18 (twice in verse); Lev 6:23 (compare v.Lev 6:11 v.Lev 6:19), Lev 7:7; Lev 10:16; Lev 10:17; Lev 10:19 (twice in verse); Lev 14:13; Num 18:9.
\ \ b. a bullock was offered for priests Exod 29:14; Exod 29:36; Lev 4:3; Lev 4:8; Lev 4:20; Lev 8:2; Lev 8:14 (twice in verse); Lev 9:2; Lev 9:7; Lev 9:8; Lev 9:10 for Levites at their installation Num 8:8; Num 8:12 and for whole congregation Lev 4:14; Lev 4:21 but usually offering for congregation was he-goat Num 15:24; Num 15:25, especially at dedication of altar Lev 9:3; Lev 9:15; Lev 9:22. and in ritual of feasts Num 28:15; Num 28:22; Num 28:30; Num 29:5; Num 29:11; Num 29:16; Num 29:19; Num 29:22; Num 29:25; Num 29:28; Num 29:31; Num 29:34; Num 29:38. Before consecration of the tabernacle the blood went to altar of burnt-offering (Lev 9:9), but subsequently some of it was sprinkled seven times before the vail and some of it put on horns of altar of incense to cleanse this higher altar; the fast pieces were burned on altar of burnt-offering, and the rest of the victim burned without the camp (Lev 4:3-21; Lev 6:23; Lev 8:16; Lev 8:17; Lev 9:10; Lev 9:11).
\ \ c. on day of atonement, sin-offering for high priest was a bullock Lev 16:3; Lev 16:6 and for congregation two he-goats, one לַעֲזָאזֵל (see עזאזל) Lev 16:5 (compare vLev 16:8 vLev 16:10 vLev 16:20 vLev 16:22), the other for sacrifice ליהוה Lev 16:9 (compare vLev 16:8). Some of the blood of Aaron's bullock was first taken into innermost sanctuary and sprinkled on the כפרת and seven times before it; so also blood of the he-goat Lev 16:11 (twice in verse); Lev 16:15 (compare vLev 16:12-14 vLev 16:16 vLev 16:17) to cleanse highest altar: then the blood of the two victims was applied to lower altars as in a and b and so sin was covered over at the three altars Exod 30:10 (compare Lev 16:16-19). The fat pieces went to altar of burnt-offering and the rest of the victims was burnt without the camp Lev 16:25; Lev 16:27 (twice in verse). (Sins which might be covered over were limited to those committed בשׁגגה Lev 4:2; Lev 4:22; Lev 4:27; Num 15:27, לשׁגגה Num 15:24, minor offences Lev 5:1-6 and ceremonial uncleanness Lev 12:6; Lev 12:8; Lev 14:13; Lev 15:15; Num 6:11; Num 6:14.) — Pharses for sacrificing are: ׳עשׂה ח Lev 9:7; Lev 9:22; Lev 14:19; Num 6:16; Ezek 45:17, ׳הקריב ח Lev 10:19; Ezek 44:27, ׳שׁחט ח Lev 14:13; Ezek 40:39.
5. purification from sins of ceremonial uncleanness, all P: ׳ח ׳מֵ Num 8:7 water of purification from sin; הוּא ׳מֵי נִדָּה ח water of (cleansing from) impurity, it is a purification from sin Num 19:9 ׳עֲפַר שְׂרֵפַת הח Num 19:17 ashes of the burning of the purification from sin (RV renders sin-offering; but there was no offering made, only water of purification was used).


The Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon
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