Weak, Weakened, Weaker, Weakness - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Weak, Weakened, Weaker, Weakness

[ A-1,Adjective,G772, asthenes ]
lit., strengthless" (See IMPOTENT), is translated "weak,"
(a) of physical "weakness," Matthew 26:41; Mark 14:38; 1 Corinthians 1:27; 1 Corinthians 4:10; 1 Corinthians 11:30 (a judgment upon spiritual laxity in a church); 2 Corinthians 10:10; 1 Peter 3:7 (comparative degree);
(b) in the spiritual sense, said of the rudiments of Jewish religion, in their inability to justify anyone, Galatians 4:9; of the Law, Hebrews 7:18; in Romans 5:6, RV, "weak" (AV, "without strength"), of the inability of man to accomplish his salvation;
(c) morally or ethically, 1 Corinthians 8:7, 1 Corinthians 8:10; 1 Corinthians 9:22;
(d) rhetorically, of God's actions according to the human estimate, 1 Corinthians 1:25, "weakness," lit., "the weak things of God." See FEEBLE, SICK.

[ A-2,Adjective,G102, adunatos ]
lit., "not powerful," is translated "weak" in Romans 15:1, of the infirmities of those whose scruples arise through lack of faith (See Romans 14:22-Romans 14:23), in the same sense as No. 1
(c); the change in the adjective (cp. Romans 14:1) is due to the contrast with dunatoi, the "strong," who have not been specifically mentioned as such in ch. 14. See IMPOSSIBLE.

[ B-1,Verb,G770, astheneo ]
"to lack strength," is used in much the same way as A, No. 1, and translated "being ... weak" in Romans 4:19, AV (RV, "being weakened"); Romans 8:3; Romans 14:1-Romans 14:2 (in some texts, 1 Corinthians 8:9); 2 Corinthians 11:21, 2 Corinthians 11:29 (twice); 2 Corinthians 12:10; 2 Corinthians 13:3-4, 2 Corinthians 13:9. See DISEASED, IMPOTENT, SICK.

[ C-1,Noun,G769, astheneia ]
for which See INFIRMITY, is rendered "weakness," of the body, 1 Corinthians 2:3; 1 Corinthians 15:43; 2 Corinthians 11:30, RV; 2 Corinthians 12:5 (plural, RV), 2 Corinthians 12:9-10, RV; Hebrews 11:34; in 2 Corinthians 13:4, "He was crucified through weakness" is said in respect of the physical sufferings to which Christ voluntarily submitted in giving Himself up to the death of the Cross.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words