Scripture - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words


[ 1,,G1124, graphe ]
akin to grapho, to write" (Eng., "graph," "graphic," etc.), primarily denotes "a drawing, painting;" then "a writing,"
(a) of the OT Scriptures,

(1) in the plural, the whole, e.g., Matthew 21:42; Matthew 22:29; John 5:39; Acts 17:11; Acts 18:24; Romans 1:2, where "the prophets" comprises the OT writers in general; Romans 15:4; Romans 16:26, lit., "prophetic writings," expressing the character of all the Scriptures;

(2) in the singular in reference to a particular passage, e.g., Mark 12:10; Luke 4:21; John 2:22; John 10:35 (though applicable to all); John 19:24, John 19:28, John 19:36-John 19:37; John 20:9; Acts 1:16; Acts 8:32, Acts 8:35; Romans 4:3; Romans 9:17; Romans 10:11; Romans 11:2; Galatians 3:8, Galatians 3:22; Galatians 4:30; 1 Timothy 5:18, where the 2nd quotation is from Luke 10:7, from which it may be inferred that the Apostle included Luke's Gospel as "Scripture" alike with Deuteronomy, from which the first quotation is taken; in reference to the whole, e.g., James 4:5 (See RV, a separate rhetorical question from the one which follows); in 2 Peter 1:20, "no prophecy of Scripture," a description of all, with special application to the OT in the next verse;
(b) of the OT Scriptures (those accepted by the Jews as canonical) and all those of the NT which were to be accepted by Christians as authoritative, 2 Timothy 3:16; these latter were to be discriminated from the many forged epistles and other religious "writings" already produced and circulated in Timothy's time. Such discrimination would be directed by the fact that "every Scripture," characterized by inspiration of God, would be profitable for the purposes mentioned; so the RV. The AV states truth concerning the completed Canon of Scripture, but that was not complete when the Apostle wrote to Timothy.

The Scriptures are frequently personified by the NT writers (as by the Jews, John 7:42),
(a) as speaking with Divine authority, e.g., John 19:37; Romans 4:3; Romans 9:17, where the Scripture is said to speak to Pharaoh, giving the message actually sent previously by God to him through Moses; James 4:5 (See above);
(b) as possessed of the sentient quality of foresight, and the active power of preaching. Galatians 3:8, where the Scripture mentioned was written more than four centuries after the words were spoken. The Scripture, in such a case, stands for its Divine Author with an intimation that it remains perpetually characterized as the living voice of God. This Divine agency is again illustrated in Galatians 3:22 (cp. Galatians 3:10; Matthew 11:13).

[ 2,,G1121, gramma ]
"a letter of the alphabet," etc. is used of the Holy Scriptures in 2 Timothy 3:15. For the various uses of this word See LETTER.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words