Neighbor - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Neighbor[ 1,,G1069, geiton ]
lit., one living in the same land," denotes "a neighbor," always plural in the NT, Luke 14:12; Luke 15:6, Luke 15:9; John 9:8.
[ 2,,G4040, perioikos ]
an adjective, lit., "dwelling around"), is used as a noun in Luke 1:58, "neighbors."
[ 3,,G4139, plesion ]
the neuter of the adjective plesios (from pelas, "near"), is used as an adverb accompanied by the article, lit., "the (one) near;" hence, one's "neighbor;" See refs. below.
This and Nos. 1 and 2 have a wider range of meaning than that of the Eng. word "neighbor." There were no farmhouses scattered over the agricultural areas of Palestine; the populations, gathered in villages, went to and fro to their toil. Hence domestic life was touched at every point by a wide circle of neighborhood. The terms for neighbor were therefore of a very comprehensive scope. This may be seen from the chief characteristics of the privileges and duties of neighborhood as set forth in Scripture,
(a) its helpfulness, e.g, Proverbs 27:10; Luke 10:36;
(b) its intimacy, e.g., Luke 15:6, Luke 15:9 (See No. 1); Hebrews 8:11;
(c) its sincerity and sancitity, e.g., Exodus 22:7, Exodus 22:10; Proverbs 3:29; Proverbs 14:21; Romans 13:10; Romans 15:2; Ephesians 4:25; James 4:12. The NT quotes and expands the command in Leviticus 19:18, "to love one's neighbor as oneself;" See, e.g., Matthew 5:43; Matthew 19:19; Matthew 22:39; Mark 12:31, Mark 12:33; Luke 10:27; Galatians 5:14; James 2:8. See also Acts 7:27.
Note: In Romans 13:8, for hetron, "another," RV has "his neighbor."