Mourn, Mourning - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Mourn, Mourning

[ A-1,Verb,G2875, kopto ]
to cut or beat," used in the Middle Voice of "beating the breast or head in mourning" (cp. Luke 23:27), is translated "shall mourn" in Matthew 24:30. See BEWAIL, No. 2, CUT, WAIL.

[ A-2,Verb,G3996, pentheo ]
"to mourn for, lament," is used
(a) of mourning in general, Matthew 5:4; Matthew 9:15; Luke 6:25;
(b) of sorrow for the death of a loved one, Mark 16:10;
(c) of "mourning" for the overthrow of Babylon and the Babylonish system, Revelation 18:11, Revelation 18:15, RV, "mourning" (AV, "wailing"); Revelation 18:19 (ditto);
(d) of sorrow for sin or for condoning it, James 4:9; 1 Corinthians 5:2;
(e) of grief for those in a local church who show no repentance for evil committed, 2 Corinthians 12:21, RV, "mourn" (AV, "bewail"). See BEWAIL, No. 3.

[ A-3,Verb,G2354, threneo ]
"to lament, wail" (akin to threnos, "a lamentation, a dirge"), is used
(a) in a general sense, of the disciples during the absence of the Lord, John 16:20, "lament;"
(b) of those who sorrowed for the sufferings and the impending crucifixion of the Lord, Luke 23:27, "lamented;" the preceding word is kopto (No. 1);
(c) of "mourning" as for the dead, Matthew 11:17, RV, "wailed" (AV, "have mourned"); Luke 7:32 (ditto). See BEWAIL, Note


(1) Trench points out that pentheo is often joined with klaio, "to weep," 2 Samuel 19:1; Mark 16:10; James 4:9; Revelation 18:15, indicating that pentheo is used especially of external manifestation of grief (as with kopto and threneo), in contrast to lupeomai, which may be used of inward grief (Syn. xlv); though in Classical Greek pentheo was used of grief without violent manifestations (Grimm-Thayer).

(2) Among the well-to-do it was common to hire professional mourners (men and women), who accompanied the dead body to the grave with formal music and the singing of dirges. At the death of Jairus' daughter male flute players were present, Matthew 9:23 (See, however, Jeremiah 9:17).

[ B-1,Noun,G3602, odurmos ]
"lamentation, mourning," is translated "mourning" in Matthew 2:18; 2 Corinthians 7:7, See BEWAIL, Note

[ B-2,Noun,G3997, penthos ]
akin to A, No. 2, "mourning," is used in James 4:9; Revelation 18:7 (twice), RV, "mourning" (AV, "sorrow"); Revelation 18:8, "mourning;" Revelation 21:4, RV, "mourning" (AV, "sorrow"). See SORROW.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words