Heart, Heartily - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Heart, Heartily

[ 1,,G2588, kardia ]
the heart" (Eng., "cardiac," etc.), the chief organ of physical life ("for the life of the flesh is in the blood," Leviticus 17:11), occupies the most important place in the human system. By an easy transition the word came to stand for man's entire mental and moral activity, both the rational and the emotional elements. In other words, the heart is used figuratively for the hidden springs of the personal life. "The Bible describes human depravity as in the 'heart', because sin is a principle which has its seat in the center of man's inward life, and then 'defiles' the whole circuit of his action, Matthew 15:19-Matthew 15:20. On the other hand, Scripture regards the heart as the sphere of Divine influence, Romans 2:15; Acts 15:9. ... The heart, as lying deep within, contains 'the hidden man,' 1 Peter 3:4, the real man. It represents the true character but conceals it" (J. Laidlaw, in Hastings' Bible Dic.).

As to its usage in the NT it denotes
(a) the seat of physical life, Acts 14:17; James 5:5;
(b) the seat of moral nature and spiritual life, the seat of grief, John 14:1; Romans 9:2; 2 Corinthians 2:4; joy, John 16:22; Ephesians 5:19; the desires, Matthew 5:28; 2 Peter 2:14; the affections, Luke 24:32; Acts 21:13; the perceptions, John 12:40; Ephesians 4:18; the thoughts, Matthew 9:4; Hebrews 4:12; the understanding, Matthew 13:15; Romans 1:21; the reasoning powers, Mark 2:6; Luke 24:38; the imagination, Luke 1:51; conscience, Acts 2:37; 1 John 3:20; the intentions, Hebrews 4:12, cp. 1 Peter 4:1; purpose, Acts 11:23; 2 Corinthians 9:7; the will, Romans 6:17; Colossians 3:15; faith, Mark 11:23; Romans 10:10; Hebrews 3:12.

The heart, in its moral significance in the OT, includes the emotions, the reason and the will.

[ 2,,G5590, psuche ]
the soul, or life, is rendered "heart" in Ephesians 6:6 (marg., "soul"), "doing the will of God from the heart." In Colossians 3:23, a form of the word psuche preceded by ek, from, lit., "from (the) soul," is rendered "heartily."


(1) the RV, "heart" is substituted for AV, "bowels," in Colossians 3:12; Philemon 1:7, Philemon 1:12, Philemon 1:20.

(2) In 2 Corinthians 3:3, the RV has "tables" that are hearts of flesh," for AV, "fleshly tables of the heart."

(3) In Ephesians 1:18, the best mss. have kardia, "(the eyes of your) heart;" some have dianoia, "understanding" (AV).

(4) In Hebrews 8:10; Hebrews 10:16, the AV has "in their hearts" and "into their hearts;" RV, "on their heart."

(5) In Luke 21:26, where there is no word for "hearts" in the original, the RV has "men fainting (for fear)."

(6) In 2 Corinthians 7:2, the verb choreo, to make room for, "receive" (AV), is translated, or rather, interpreted, "open your hearts," RV, marg., "make room for (us)."

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words