God (without) - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
God (without)[ 1,,G112, atheos ]
cp. Eng., atheist," primarily signifies "godless" (a, negative), i.e., destitute of God; in Ephesians 2:12 the phrase indicates, not only that the Gentiles were void of any true recognition of God, and hence became morally "godless" (Romans 1:19-Romans 1:32) but that being given up by God, they were excluded from communion with God and from the privileges granted to Israel (See the context and cp. Galatians 4:8). As to pagan ideas, the popular cry against the early Christians was "away with the atheists" (See the account of the martyrdom of Polycarp, in Eusebius, Eccles. Hist. iv. 15, 19).