Exercise - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Exercise[ A-1,Verb,G1128, gumnazo ]
primarily signifies to exercise naked" (from gumnos, "naked"); then, generally, "to exercise, to train the body or mind" (Eng., "gymnastic"), 1 Timothy 4:7, with a view to godliness; Hebrews 5:14, of the senses, so as to discern good and evil; Hebrews 12:11, of the effect of chastening, the spiritual "exercise" producing the fruit of righteousness; 2 Peter 2:14, of certain evil teachers with hearts "exercised in covetousness," RV.
[ A-2,Verb,G778, askeo ]
signifies "to form by art, to adorn, to work up raw material with skill;" hence, in general, "to take pains, endeavor, exercise by training or discipline," with a view to a conscience void of offense, Acts 24:16.
[ A-3,Verb,G4160, poieo ]
"to do," is translated "exerciseth" in Revelation 13:12, said of the authority of the second "Beast." Cp. EXECUTE. See DO.
Notes: The following verbs contain in translation the word "exercise" but belong to other headings: exousiazo, "to exercise authority over," Luke 22:25 (exousia, "authority"); in the first part of this verse, the verb kurieuo, "to be lord," is translated "exercise lordship," AV (RV, "have lordship"); katexousiazo, a strengthened form of the preceding (kata, "down," intensive), Matthew 20:25; Mark 10:42, "exercise authority" (in the first part of these verses the synonymous (in the first part of these verses the synonymous verb katakurieuo, is rendered "Lord it," RV, for AV, "exercise dominion," and "exercise lordship," respectively); episkopeo, "to look over or upon" (epi, "over," skopeo, "to look"), "to care for," 1 Peter 5:2 (absent in some mss.), RV, "exercising the oversight," for AV "taking, etc."
[ B-1,Noun,G1129, gumnasia ]
primarily denotes "gymnastic exercise" (akin to A, No. 1), 1 Timothy 4:8, where the immediate reference is probably not to mere physical training for games but to discipline of the body such as that to which the Apostle refers in 1 Corinthians 9:27, though there may be an allusion to the practices of asceticism.