Die, Dead (to be, become), Dying - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words
Die, Dead (to be, become), Dying[ 1,,G2348, thnesko ]
to die" (in the perf. tense, "to be dead"), in the NT is always used of physical "death," except in 1 Timothy 5:6, where it is metaphorically used of the loss of spiritual life. The noun thanatos, and the verb thanatoo (below) are connected. The root of this group of words probably had the significance of the breathing out of the last breath. Cp. words under DEATH.
[ 2,,G599, apothnesko ]
lit., "to die off or out," is used
(a) of the separation of the soul from the body, i.e., the natural "death" of human beings, e.g., Matthew 9:24; Romans 7:2; by reason of descent from Adam, 1 Corinthians 15:22; or of violent "death," whether of men or animals; with regard to the latter it is once translated "perished," Matthew 8:32; of vegetation, Jude 1:12; of seeds, John 12:24; 1 Corinthians 15:36; it is used of "death" as a punishment in Israel under the Law, in Hebrews 10:28;
(b) of the separation of man from God; all who are decended from Adam not only "die" physically, owing to sin, See
(a) above, but are naturally in the state of separation from God, 2 Corinthians 5:14. From this believers are freed both now and eternally, John 6:50; John 11:26, through the "death" of Christ, Romans 5:8, e.g.; unbelievers, who "die" physically as such, remain in eternal separation from God, John 8:24. Believers have spiritually "died" to the Law as a means of life, Galatians 2:19; Colossians 2:20; to sin, Romans 6:2, and in general to all spiritual association with the world and with that which pertained to their unregenerate state, Colossians 3:3, because of their identification with the "death" of Christ, Romans 6:8 (See No. 3, below). As life never means mere existence, so "death," the opposite of life, never means nonexistence. See PERISH.
[ 3,,G4880, sunapothnesko ]
"to die with, to die together," is used of association in physical "death," Mark 14:31; in 2 Corinthians 7:3, the Apostle declares that his love to the saints makes separation impossible, whether in life or in "death." It is used once of association spiritually with Christ in His "death," 2 Timothy 2:11. See No. 2
[ 4,,G5053, teleutao ]
"to end" (from telos, "an end"), hence, "to end one's life," is used
(a) of the "death" of the body, Matthew 2:19; Matthew 9:18; Matthew 15:4, where "die the death" means "surely die," RV, marg., lit., "let him end by death;" Mark 7:10; Matthew 22:25, "deceased;" Luke 7:2; John 11:39, some mss. have verb No. 1 here; Acts 2:29; Acts 7:15; Hebrews 11:22 (RV, "his end was nigh");
(b) of the gnawings of conscience in self reproach, under the symbol of a worm, Mark 9:48 (Mark 9:44, Mark 9:46, AV). See DECEASE.
[ 5,,G2837, koimao ]
in the Middle and Passive Voices, its only use in the NT, signifies "to fall asleep." It is connected etymologically with keimai, "to lie down," the root ki-, signifying "to lie." Hence it is used metaphorically of "death," Matthew 27:52, etc. It is translated "be dead" in 1 Corinthians 7:39. See ASLEEP.
[ 6,,G581, apoginomai ]
lit., "to be away from" (apo, "from," ginomai, "to be, become;" apo here signifies "separation"), is used in 1 Peter 2:24 of the believer's attitude towards sin as the result of Christ's having borne our sins in His body on the tree; RV, "having died unto sins," the aorist or momentary tense, expressing an event in the past.
Note: Apollumi, "to destroy," is found in the Middle Voice in some mss. in John 18:14, and translated "die." The most authentic mss. have apothnesko (No. 2, above).