Desire (Noun and Verb), Desirous - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Desire (Noun and Verb), Desirous

[ A-1,Noun,G1939, epithumia ]
a desire, craving, longing, mostly of evil desires," frequently translated "lust," is used in the following, of good "desires:" of the Lord's "wish" concerning the last Passover, Luke 22:15; of Paul's "desire" to be with Christ, Philippians 1:23; of his "desire" to See the saints at Thessalonica again, 1 Thessalonians 2:17.

With regard to evil "desires," in Colossians 3:5 the RV has "desire," for the AV, "concupiscence;" in 1 Thessalonians 4:5, RV, "lust," for AV, "concupiscence;" there the preceding word pathos is translated "passion," RV, for AV, "lust" (See AFFECTION); also in Colossians 3:5 pathos and epithumia are associated, RV, "passion," for AV, "inordinate affection." Epithumia is combined with pathema, in Galatians 5:24; for the AV, "affections and lusts," the RV has "passions, and the lusts thereof." Epithumia is the more comprehensive term, including all manner of "lusts and desires;" pathema denotes suffering; in the passage in Gal. (l.c.) the sufferings are those produced by yielding to the flesh; pathos points more to the evil state from which "lusts" spring. Cp. orexis, "lust," Romans 1:27. See CONCUPISCENCE, LUST, and Trench, Syn. lxxxvii.

[ A-2,Noun,G2107, eudokia ]
lit., "good pleasure" (eu, "well," dokeo, "to seem"), implies a gracious purpose, a good object being in view, with the idea of a resolve, showing the willingness with which the resolve is made. It is often translated "good pleasure," e.g., Ephesians 1:5,9; Philippians 2:13; in Philippians 1:15, "good will;" in Romans 10:1, "desire," (marg., "good pleasure"); in 2 Thessalonians 1:11, RV, "desire," AV and RV, marg., "good pleasure."

It is used of God in Matthew 11:26 ("well pleasing," RV, for AV, "seemed good"); Luke 2:14, RV, "men in whom He is well pleased," lit., "men of good plearure" (the construction is objective); Luke 10:21; Ephesians 1:5,9; Philippians 2:13. See PLEASURE, SEEM, WILL.

[ A-3,Noun,G1972, epipothesis ]
"an earnest desire, a longing for" (epi, "upon," intensive, potheo, "to desire"), is found in 2 Corinthians 7:7,11, AV, "earnest desire," and "vehement desire;" RV, "longing" in both places. See LONGING.

[ A-4,Noun,G1974, epipothia ]
with the same meaning as No. 3, is used in Romans 15:23, RV, "longing," AV, "great desire." Cp. epipothetos, Philippians 4:1, "longed for," and epipotheo, "to long for" [See B, Note
(4)]. See LONGING.

[ A-5,Noun,G2307, thelema ]
denotes "a will, that which is willed" (akin to B, No. 6). It is rendered "desires," in Ephesians 2:3. See PLEASURE, WILL.

Note: In 1 Peter 4:3, RV, boulema is rendered "desire." See WILL.

[ B-1,Verb,G515, axioo ]
"to deem worthy," is translated "desire" in Acts 28:22, where a suitable rendering would be "We think it meet (or good) to hear of thee;" so in Acts 15:38. See THINK.

[ B-2,Verb,G1937, epithumeo ]
"to desire earnestly" (as with A, No. 1), stresses the inward impulse rather than the object desired. It is translated "to desire" in Luke 16:21; Luke 17:22; Luke 22:15; 1 Timothy 3:1; Hebrews 6:11; 1 Peter 1:12; Revelation 9:6. See COVET.

[ B-3,Verb,G2065, erotao ]
in Luke 7:36 is translated "desired;" in Luke 14:32, RV, "asketh," for AV, "desireth;" so in John 12:21; Acts 16:39; Acts 18:20; Acts 23:20; in Acts 23:18 "asked," for AV, "prayed." See ASK.

[ B-4,Verb,2442,homeiromai / himeiromai ] "to have a strong affection for, a yearning after," is found in 1 Thessalonians 2:8, "being affectionately desirous of you." It is probably derived from a root indicating rememberance.

[ B-5,Verb,G3713, orego ]
"to reach or stretch out," is used only in the Middle Voice, signifying the mental effort of stretching oneself out for a thing, of longing after it, with stress upon the object desired (cp. No. 2); it is translated "desire" in Hebrews 11:16; in 1 Timothy 3:1, RV, "seeketh," for AV, "desireth;" in 1 Timothy 6:10, RV, "reached after," for AV, "coveted after." In Hebrews 11:16, a suitable rendering would be "reach after." See COVET, SEEK. Cp. orexis, lust, Romans 1:27.

[ B-6,Verb,G2309, thelo ]
"to will, to wish," implying volition and purpose, frequently a determination, is most usually rendered "to will." It is translated "to desire" in the RV of the following: Matthew 9:13; Matthew 12:7; Mark 6:19; Luke 10:29; Luke 14:28; Luke 23:20; Acts 24:27; Acts 25:9; Galatians 4:17; 1 Timothy 5:11; Hebrews 12:17; Hebrews 13:18. See DISPOSED, FORWARD, INTEND, LIST, LOVE, MEAN, PLEASED, RATHER, VOLUNTARY, WILL.

[ B-7,Verb,G1014, boulomai ]
"to wish, to will deliberately," expresses more strongly than thelo (No. 6) the deliberate exercise of the will; it is translated "to desire" in the RV of the following: Acts 22:30; Acts 23:38; Acts 27:43; Acts 28:18; 1 Timothy 2:8; 1 Timothy 5:14; 1 Timothy 6:9; Jude 1:5. See DISPOSED, INTEND, LIST, MINDED, WILLING, WISH, WOULD.

[ B-8,Verb,G2206, zeloo ]
"to have a zeal for, to be zealous towards," whether in a good or evil sense, the former in 1 Corinthians 14:1, concerning spiritual gifts RV, "desire earnestly," AV, "desire;" in an evil sense, in James 4:2, RV, "covet," for AV, "desire to have."

[ B-9,Verb,G154, aiteo ]
"to ask," is rendered "to desire" in AV, e.g., in Matthew 20:20; Luke 23:25 [RV, always "to ask (for)"].

[ B-10,Verb,G4692, speudo ]
is translated "earnestly desiring" in 2 Peter 3:12, RV. See HASTE.

Note: The following are translated by the verb "to desire" in the AV.

(1) Eperotao, No. 3, with epi, intensive, "to ask, interrogate, inquire of, consult, or to demand of a person;" in Matthew 16:1, RV, "asked." See ASK.

(2) Zeteo, "to seek;" in Matthew 12:46,47, RV, "seeking;" in Luke 9:9, RV, "sought." See ENDEAVOR, GO, Note

(3) Epizeteo, "to seek earnestly" (No. 2, with epi, intensive), in Acts 13:7, RV, "sought;" in Philippians 4:17, RV, "seek for" (twice). See INQUIRE, SEEK.

(4) Epipotheo, "to long after, to lust;" in 2 Corinthians 5:2, RV, "longing;" in 1 Thessalonians 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:4, RV, "longing;" in 1 Peter 2:2, RV, "long for." See A, Nos. 3,4. See LONG, LUST.

(5) Exaiteomai, intensive of No. 9, occurs in Luke 22:31.

(6) For parakaleo, See BESEECH, EXHORT, INTREAT.

(7) For "desirous of vain glory," See VAINGLORY.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words