Before, Beforetime - Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words

Before, Beforetime

[ A-1,Adverb,G4412, proton ]
the neuter of the adjective protos (the superlative degree of pro, before"), signifies "first, or at the first,"
(a) in order of time, e.g., Luke 10:5; John 18:13; 1 Corinthians 15:46; 1 Thessalonians 4:16; 1 Timothy 3:10;
(b) in enumerating various particulars, e.g., Romans 3:2; 1 Corinthians 11:18; 1 Corinthians 12:28; Hebrews 7:2; James 3:17. It is translated "before" in John 15:18. See CHIEFLY, FIRST.

[ A-2,Adverb,G4386, proteron ]
the neuter of proteros, the comparative degree of pro, is always used of time, and signifies "aforetime, before," e.g., John 6:62; John 9:8; 2 Corinthians 1:15; Hebrews 7:27; in Galatians 4:13, "the first time" (RV), lit., "the former time," i.e., the former of two previous visits; in Hebrews 10:32 it is placed between the article and the noun, "the former days;" so in 1 Peter 1:14, "the former lusts," i.e., the lusts formerly indulged. See FIRST, FORMER.

[ A-3,Adverb,G4250, prin ]
"before, formerly" (etymologically akin to pro, "before"), has the force of a conjunction, e.g., Matthew 1:18; Matthew 26:34, Matthew 26:75; John 14:29; Acts 7:2.

[ A-4,Adverb,G1715, emprosthen ]
is used of place or position only; adverbially, signifying "in front," Luke 19:28; Philippians 3:13; Revelation 4:6; as a preposition, e.g., Matthew 5:24; John 10:4; with the meaning "in the sight of a person," e.g., Matthew 5:16; Matthew 6:1; Matthew 17:2; Luke 19:27; John 12:37; 1 Thessalonians 2:19, RV, "before;" AV, "in the presence of;" Revelation 19:10, RV, "before," especially in phrases signifying in the sight of God, as God wills, Matthew 11:26; Matthew 18:14 (lit., "a thing willed before your Father," RV, marg.); Luke 10:21; in the sense of "priority of rank or position or dignity," John 1:15, John 1:30 (in some texts, John 1:27); in an antagonistic sense, "against," Matthew 23:13 (RV, marg., "before").

[ A-5,Adverb,G1726, enantion ]
from en, "in," and anti, "over against," the neuter of the adjective enantios, and virtually an adverb, is also used as a preposition signifying "in the presence of, in the sight of," Luke 20:26; Acts 7:10; Acts 8:32; "in the judgment of," Luke 24:19.

[ A-6,Adverb,G1725, enanti ]
an adverb, used as a preposition, has meanings like those of No. 5, "before," Luke 1:8; "in the judgment of," Acts 8:21. Some texts have the word in Acts 7:10.

[ A-7,Adverb,G561, apenanti ]
apo, "from," with No. 6, denotes
(a) "opposite," Matthew 27:61;
(b) "in the sight of, before," Matthew 27:24; Acts 3:16; Romans 3:18;
(c) "against," Acts 17:7. See CONTRARY, PRESENCE.

[ A-8,Adverb,G2713, katenanti ]
kata, "down," with No. 6, lit., "down over against," is used
(a) of locality, e.g., Mark 11:2; Mark 13:3; Luke 19:30;
(b) as "in the sight of," Romans 4:17; in most mss. in 2 Corinthians 2:17; 2 Corinthians 12:19.

[ A-9,Adverb,G1799, enopion ]
from en, "in," and ops, "the eye," is the neuter of the adjective enopios, and is used prepositionally,
(a) of place, that which is before or opposite a person, "towards which he turns his eyes," e.g., Luke 1:19; Acts 4:10; Acts 6:6; Revelation 1:4; Revelation 4:10; Revelation 7:15;
(b) in metaphorical phrases after verbs of motion, Luke 1:17; Luke 12:9; Acts 9:15, etc.; signifying "in the mind or soul of persons," Luke 12:6; Acts 10:31; Revelation 16:19;
(c) "in one's sight or hearing," Luke 24:43; John 20:30; 1 Timothy 6:12; metaphorically, Romans 14:22; especially in Galatians 1:20; 1 Timothy 5:21; 1 Timothy 6:13; 2 Timothy 2:14; 2 Timothy 4:1; before, as "having a person present to the mind," Acts 2:25; James 4:10; "in the judgment of a person," Luke 16:15; Luke 24:11, RV, "in their sight," for AV, "to;" Acts 4:19; Romans 3:20; Romans 12:17; 2 Corinthians 8:21; 1 Timothy 2:3; "in the approving sight of God," Luke 1:75; Acts 7:46; Acts 10:33; 2 Corinthians 4:2; 2 Corinthians 7:12. See PRESENCE, SIGHT OF (in the).

[ A-10,Adverb,G2714, katenopion ]
kata, "against," with No. 9, signifies "right over against, opposite;"
(a) of place, Jude 1:24;
(b) before God as Judge, Ephesians 1:4; Colossians 1:22. See No. 8
(b).

[ B-1,Verb,G4391, prouparcho ]
"to exist before, or be beforehand," is found in Luke 23:12; Acts 8:9, "beforetime." In the Sept., Job 42:18.

Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words