ALT(i) 1 Paul, a slave of Jesus Christ, a called apostle, having been separated [or, appointed] to the Gospel of God, 2 which He promised beforehand through His prophets in [the] Holy Scriptures, 3 concerning His Son, the One having come from [the] seed of David according to the flesh, 4 the [One] having been designated Son of God with power according to [the] Spirit of holiness, by [the] resurrection from [the] dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, 5 through whom we received grace and apostleship for obedience of faith among all the nations on behalf of His name, 6 among whom youp also are called of Jesus Christ; 7 to all the ones being in Rome, beloved of God, called holy ones [or, saints, and throughout epistle]: Grace to youp and peace from God our Father and [the] Lord Jesus Christ! 8 First indeed I thank my God through Jesus Christ for all of youp, that yourp faith is being proclaimed in the whole world. 9 For God is my witness, whom I sacredly serve in my spirit in the Gospel of His Son, how I constantly make mention of youp, 10 always imploring in my prayers, if in some way now at last I will succeed, by the will of God, to come to youp. 11 For I long to see youp, so that I should impart some spiritual gift to youp, for youp to be established, 12 now that is [for me] to be comforted [or, encouraged] together among youp, through faith in one another, both yoursp and mine. 13 But I do not want youp to be unaware, brothers [and sisters], that frequently I myself intended to come to youp (and was prevented until the present), so that I should have some fruit also among youp, just as also among the other Gentiles. 14 I am a debtor [fig., under obligation] both to Greeks and to foreigners, both to wise and to foolish. 15 So the [situation] concerning me [is this: I am] eager to proclaim the Gospel also to youp, the [ones] in Rome. 16 For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ, for it is [the] power of God to salvation to every [one] believing, both to [the] Jew first and to [the] Greek. 17 For [the] righteousness of God is revealed in it from faith to faith, just as it has been written, "But the [one] righteous by faith will live [or, the righteous will live by faith]." [Hab 2:4] 18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven upon all impiety [or, ungodliness] and unrighteousness of people, [upon] the ones suppressing the truth in unrighteousness. 19 For this reason, the [thing] known of God is revealed among [or, within] them, for God revealed [it] to them. 20 For from [the] creation of [the] world His invisible [attributes] are plainly seen, being understood by the [things] made, both His eternal power and divinity, so that they are without excuse. 21 For this reason, having known God, they did not glorify [Him] as God nor did they give thanks, but they were given over to deception in their thought processes [or, they became futile in their speculations], and their foolish heart [fig., inner self, and throughout book] was darkened. 22 Professing to be wise, they were made fools, 23 and exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for a likeness of an image of corruptible people and of birds and of four-footed animals and of reptiles. 24 And so God also gave them over in the lusts of their hearts to impurity [or, immorality], to the dishonoring of their bodies among themselves; 25 who exchanged the truth of God for the lie [or, changed the truth of God into a lie], and worshipped and sacredly served the creation rather than the One having created, who is blessed into the ages [fig., forever]. So be it! 26 For this reason God gave them over to dishonorable, lustful passions, for even their females exchanged the natural use for the [use] against nature, 27 and likewise also the males having left the natural use of the female were inflamed in their craving for one another; males with males committing shameful behavior and receiving back in themselves the penalty which was fitting [for] their deception [or, perversion]. 28 And just as they did not think it was worthwhile to be having [or, keeping] God in [their] true knowledge [or, consciousness], God gave them over to a disapproved [fig., debased] mind to be doing the [things] not proper, 29 having been filled with all unrighteousness, sexual sin, wickedness, covetous desire [or, greed], malice; full of envy, murder, bitter conflict, deceit [or, treachery], maliciousness; gossips, 30 back-biters, God-haters, insolent persons, arrogant boasters, schemers of evil [things], disobedient to parents, 31 foolish, untrustworthy, without natural affection, unforgiving, unmerciful; 32 who having known the righteous judgment of God, that the ones practicing such things are deserving of death, not only are doing them, but they are also approving of the ones practicing [them].